What was militarism like in World War I

With the concept of Militarization one usually describes a process initiated from "above". The military is promoted at different levels for the purpose of securing rule, whereby it can penetrate more and more areas of culture, politics, state and society. militarism on the other hand means the ideological high esteem for militant and combative values ​​in society and culture. Even if both terms have some overlap, they are not congruent. And yet he could militarism, says Michael Hochedlinger, as "[...]Result of a (successful) militarization process“To be understood. "The nationalization of the military also led to a 'militarization' of the state ... almost always with complex and long-term effects on social character and political culture.“ 

The distinction between Militarization and militarism in societies that are at a very advanced stage of the militarization process. Since the second half of the 19th century, these boundaries have become increasingly blurred for the Danube Monarchy - as for other states. During this time, the military began to interpenetrate social, cultural, administrative and political life in a variety of ways.

From a historical perspective, it should be noted that the increasing Militarization From the 17th century onwards, Europe is closely related to the competition between European powers and, subsequently, to the process of state formation. The extent of armed conflict increased in Europe - with the exception of the era of Cabinet Wars in the 18th century - continuously increasing. This development presented the warring countries with the task of recruiting or recruiting enough soldiers on the one hand, and also being able to finance these disputes on the other.

While the Habsburgs in Thirty Years War (1618–1648) resorted to the private mercenary army of the major military entrepreneur Wallenstein, this strategy seemed to them to be too risky in the long run for reasons of power politics. After this Peace of Westphalia (1648) the successive construction of a monarchized - i.e. integrated into the state apparatus - began. Standing Army. The continuously increasing troop strength (1650: 20,000 / 1683: 80,000 / 1701: 100,000 / 1734: 200,000 / 1790: 500,000 / with the General mobilization In 1914 1.8 to 2 million men were under arms) led to a cost explosion, which, however, could not be avoided in view of the international competition for power. In the 18th century, for example, an average of 50 percent of state revenues flowed into the military apparatus. In order to free themselves from the political, fiscal and administrative dependencies of the classes and countries, the rulers strove to centralize these competencies. This should be done after the prostration of the bohemian uprising and the Austrian estates rebellion (1620) also succeeded successively and led to a significant increase in power of the establishing central state.

bibliography

Hochedlinger, Michael: Militarization and consolidation of states. The example of the Habsburg monarchy in the early modern period, in: Kolnberger, Thomas / Steffelbauer, Ilja / Weigl, Gerald (eds.): Krieg und Akkultuaration, Vienna 2004, 107-129

Hochedlinger, Michael: Recruits - Militarization - Modernization. Military and rural society in the Habsburg monarchy in the age of enlightened absolutism, in: Krol, Stefan / Krüger, Kesten (ed.): Military and rural society in the early modern times, Hamburg 2000, 327-376

Ortner, Christian: The k. u. k. Army and their last war, Vienna 2013

Quotes:

"[...] Result of a (successful) militarization process ...": Hochedlinger, Michael: Recruits - Militarization - Modernization. Military and rural society in the Habsburg Monarchy in the age of enlightened absolutism, in: Krol, Stefan / Krüger, Kesten (ed.): Military and rural society in the early modern times, Hamburg 2000, 334

"The nationalization of the military ...": ibid., 334