How was the ICSE 2017 geography paper

3. GEOGRAPHY Asia Minor is a long rectangular peninsula protruding into the eastern Mediterranean, the long sides of which are curved in an S-shape in a west-east direction. It extends about 1500 km in this direction, if you orientate yourself on today's state borders of Turkey. The width of the rectangle, in north-south direction, is 500 to 600 km and 480 km at the narrowest point, called isthmos by the Greeks. Based on the Asian part of Turkey, an area of ​​756 855 km2 is enclosed, before Spain (approx. 580,000 km2) and Gaul (approx. 550,000 km2) the largest land mass of the Roman Empire. It is a mountainous country thanks to its location in the alpine fold mountain belt, 11 which continues from the Atlas, Pyrenees and Alps in the west over the Balkans, Zagros, Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalayas to Indonesia. On the peninsula, this belt includes a northern and a southern fold zone, which enclose the central high plateau between them. The Arabic plate hits the south-east edge; the rift, which continues north from the East African lakes through the Red Sea, Lebanon and Syria, borders the Tauros north of Antakya in an arc that swings to the northeast. Northern Asia Minor A broad band of parallel trenches and folds of the Pontic Mountains runs through the north. The elevations around the Sea of ​​Marmara are relatively low, rarely over 1500 m. The East Thracian Istranca Mountains continue beyond the Bosphorus on the low, rugged plateau of the Bithynian Peninsula and on to the lower Sakarya (Sangarios). A volcanic rock plateau rises up to 1300 m between the southern edge of the Marmara Sea and the valley of Bakır Çay (Kaikos), which leads to the Aegean Sea with the rivers Bakır Çay, Gediz and Menderes, and into the Marmara and Black Seas with Simav and Sakarya drains. North-east of the Sakarya plain separates the zone of the western Pontus chains, in places up to 200 km 32 I. Introduction: Anatolia between east and west wide and very steep, a narrow coastal strip from the Anatolian massif central. One can distinguish three main chains: the coastal chain (north of Kastamonu rising to over 2000 m), behind it, separated by the river valleys of Filyos and Gökırmak, the Bolu and Ilgaz Dağları (up to 2588 m), south of it, separated by the valleys of Gerede Çay and Devrez Çay, the Köroğlu Dağları. In the middle of the southern chain there is a threshold that extends far to the south, almost as far as the salt lake, with some higher elevations such as the Elma Dağ in the east, the Ayaş Dağ in the west and the Karaca- and Paşa Dağları in the south; Ankara lies in a depression of this threshold. Further to the east, the Pontic chains are more subdivided by narrow valleys and broader lowlands, particularly striking are the valleys of the Kelkit and Çoruh, the Suluova (Merzifon) and the basins of Erbaa, Zile, Turhal, Tokat and Niksar. The eastern Pontic coastal chain reaches a height of almost 4000 m above Yusufeli. The alluvial plains of the Sinop Peninsula, the Bafra and Çarşamba Ovaları, which protrude into the Black Sea, interrupt the long cliffs in the north. The traffic along the Black Sea coast and between it and the high plateau is difficult: For a long time, ancient port locations were only connected by sea, with a continuous coastal road, as has been proven, not until the Roman Empire. The relief only grants favorable routes from inland to the coast on the western and eastern edges of the central Pontos arch, from the Bolu Ovası through the valleys of the Mengen Çay and Devrek Çay to the alluvial plain of the Filyos estuary and in the east through the basin system between Kızıl Irmak and Yeşil Irmak down to Samsun. The rivers played a limited role for traffic in antiquity, as they are only a short distance upstream from their mouth to their gorge-like openings and beyond them on the high plateau can be navigated by boats and smaller ships. 12 The Sakarya (Sangarios), the second longest river in Asia Minor is already mentioned in Homer; perhaps it is the river called Sa ˘ hiriya in Hittite sources. It rises in the Massif Central, first bends to the east, turns west of Ankara abruptly to the west and after another curve to the north breaks through the Pontos Mountains to the Black Sea. The Filyos (Billaios), the longest river in Northern Anatolia after the Sakarya, flows in a similar loop. The climatic contrasts between the coastline and the plateau are strong. The coast has a subtropical climate and lush vegetation. East of Rize, in the legendary Colchis of antiquity, the highest annual rainfall in Turkey was measured at 2652 mm. The south side of the main chain has a continental climate with cold and dry winters and damp, cool summers. Geography 33 Aegean coast The west coast is strongly structured, even cut up, for which the folds and ditches running to the west are responsible. The sea penetrates far into the rift zones and forms nine larger bays that cut 30 to 100 km deep into the land. Between Edremit and Aydın, i.e. in the larger part of the coastal region, the alluvial plains of the rivers (Bakır Çay, Gediz, Küçük and Büyük Menderes), which are up to 12 km wide and reach far inland, are characteristic for traffic and cultivation the southern section is characterized by promontories jutting out into the sea, such as the Bodrum Peninsula and especially the Reşadiye Peninsula south of Gokka Bay. The direction of strike of the mountain ranges in the hinterland is further north EW. In the south of Aydın the relief has a more complicated shape with folds trending NE-SW to N-S. Central and Eastern Anatolia The north-west and west borders of the Anatolian Central Massif against the Marmara Basin and the Aegean Sea are flowing, the plateau as a whole slowly sinks to the west, although the folds on both sides of the great river valleys rise up to 2000 m. The north-eastern and eastern part of the central plateau, around Çankırı, Çorum, Amasya and Tokat, is more indented and more humid than the southern half, and offers rich fruiting areas for cultivation and animal husbandry. Central Anatolia is not a uniform block, it is alternating plateau, mountain ranges and cones of different types of rock and different origins; However, wrinkles are less common. The surveys on the extensive levels do not constitute any traffic obstacles. Much of this landscape extends within the arch of the Kızıl Irmak ("Red River"), the longest river in Asia Minor. Taking up smaller source rivers east of Sivas, it initially flows in the arc that extends far to the south through Cappadocia. Then he turns east of the salt lake to the north and breaks through the Pontic Mountains to the mouth of the Black Sea. Its Greek name Halys ("salt") was associated in antiquity with salt deposits in the Cappadocian landscape of Ximene; its first mention by the Greeks is in the tragedy The Persians (866) by Aeschylus. The Hittites called it Marassantiya.13 To the west and south of the Kızıl Irmak, in the parallelogram between Eskişehir, Afyon, Konya, Niğde and Ankara, hill country to flat 34 rule I. Introduction: Anatolia between east and west plains. Anyone who knows Anatolia understands the metaphor of the "rolling hills", loves this "apparent gentleness of the relief forms, the rounding of the ridges and crests and those widespread areas that are still strikingly flat even at a relatively high altitude above the valleys." 14 Low Elevations divide this plateau into three flat parts: the Sakaryatal, the salt lake basin and the Konya plain, which extends the furthest south to the inner Tauros arch. East of the Niğde, Nevşehir, Tokat line, the Central Massif rises to the Eastern Anatolian plateau. This is cut by deep river valleys, structured by hills, high mountain ranges and large volcanic cones. The plains themselves are partly a product of the volcanoes in their center, the tuff landscape west of Kayseri is particularly bizarre (Fig. 2). The formations are due to erosion processes after the lava and ash deposits by eruptions of the Erciyas and Hasan Dağ. In the north, wider valleys divide the parallel lines of the eastern Pontic coastal chain, such as the Aşkale plain between Erzincan and Erzurum and, further east, the upper Euphrates and the upper Ara valleys. The volcanic plateau of Kars with a group of smaller volcanoes rises to the north of the Arastal valley. At the east end and south of this mountain axis are enthroned the volcanoes Kleiner and Großer Ararat, the Süphan Dağ, Nemrud Dağ and the chain of the Bingöl Dağları. The majestic Ararat is the highest peak in Asia Minor at 5156 m (Fig. 3). The name of the mountain Masis is Armenian, Fig. 2: Tuff landscape in Cappadocia Fig. 3: The Ararat from the west Geography 35 plains. Anyone who knows Anatolia understands the metaphor of the "rolling hills", loves this "apparent gentleness of the relief forms, the rounding of the ridges and crests and those widespread areas that are still strikingly flat even at a relatively high altitude above the valleys." 14 Low Elevations divide this plateau into three flat parts: the Sakaryatal, the salt lake basin and the Konya plain, which extends the furthest south to the inner Tauros arch. East of the Niğde, Nevşehir, Tokat line, the Central Massif rises to the Eastern Anatolian plateau. This is cut by deep river valleys, structured by hills, high mountain ranges and large volcanic cones. The plains themselves are partly a product of the volcanoes in their center, the tuff landscape west of Kayseri is particularly bizarre (Fig. 2). The formations are due to erosion processes after the lava and ash deposits by eruptions of the Erciyas and Hasan Dağ. In the north, wider valleys divide the parallel lines of the eastern Pontic coastal chain, such as the Aşkale plain between Erzincan and Erzurum and, further east, the upper Euphrates and the upper Ara valleys. The volcanic plateau of Kars with a group of smaller volcanoes rises to the north of the Arastal valley. At the east end and south of this mountain axis are enthroned the volcanoes Kleiner and Großer Ararat, the Süphan Dağ, Nemrud Dağ and the chain of the Bingöl Dağları. The majestic Ararat is the highest peak in Asia Minor at 5156 m (Fig. 3). The name of the mountain Masis is Armenian, Fig. 2: Tuff landscape in Cappadocia Fig. 3: The Ararat from the west, Greek Baris and Turkish Ağrı Dağ («Mountain of Sorrows»). The name Ararat, which is only used in the European tradition, comes from the Old Testament (Gen 8.4). In the tale of the Flood, it refers to the place where Noah's ark stranded. What is meant is the highlands of Armenia (Hierony mus translates as super montes Armeniae - "over the mountains of Armenia"); the name comes from the Assyrian name of the country Urartu (p. 144). Since when it has been used is not entirely clear: the earliest evidence seems to date back to the 14th century. To this day, there have been searches on foot and from the air that are aimed at the ark. In the 14th century, for example, the author known as John Mandeville wrote in his travel stories (partly copied from others, partly conceived) that a monk had climbed up with God's help and took a piece of a plank with him.15 The first known attempt The botany professor from Aix-en-Provence Joseph Pitton de Tournefort undertook an ascent in 1707 (p. 48), whereas the German Friedrich Parrot only reached the summit in 1829.16 The volcano erupted for the last time in 1840. The Vansee, at Strabon Thospitis, lies at an altitude of 1720 m above sea level. M. and with 3764 m2 it is the largest inland lake in Turkey. Its depth (more than 250 m near the shore) and the high content of sodium carbonate are characteristic. Strabo already describes it as "containing lye" (11, 14, 8). The fertile 36 I. Introduction: Anatolia between East and West Areas on the banks have attracted settlers since early history. South of the Van Basin, Cilo- and Sat Dağları reach an altitude of 4000 m and form a dividing wall between it and the northern Iraqi steppe. The Euphrates and Tigris, together with the Nile, the life-giving primal streams of the oldest cultures, are not the broad and sluggishly flowing waterways of Mesopotamia on the eastern plateau, but deeply cut into relief, in curves and through gorges flowing fast and dangerous for traffic. Especially on the central Euphrates, breakthroughs (with partly vertical rock walls) alternate with wider, intermontane basins like those around Erzincan, Elazığ and Malatya, or, on the largest Euphrates tributary, Murat, with Bingöl. South Asia Minor In the S-shaped curved course of the steep coast, following the Tauros massif, larger alluvial plains spread out similarly to the north in only a few places: on the Gulf of Antalya and between Mersin and Iskenderun Bay. The name Tauros (Turkish Toros) is first mentioned in Greek by Aristotle; the Greeks associated it with the same word for "bull" (Dionysios Periegeta 641 Müller; Stephanos von Byzanz p. 608, 16–19 Meineke s. v.), associated its shape with the hump or its nature with the ferocity of the bull. Libanios, a rhetorician and writer of the 4th century AD, gives an etymology (Or. 9, 92): After the flood, the mountains were the first to emerge from the water and dry, hence the name Tersia , obtained from tersaino («to dry out»). The Tauros of Asia Minor can be divided into two segments. The western section (Lycian Tauros) forms a barrier between the Aegean and Mediterranean coasts. Its relief is complicated, above Antalyas, SW-NE axes meet with S-N axes, broader basins (Elmalı plain) are embedded in the main chains, spacious corridors form in the mountain ranges that continue to the north, which with the after NW Cilician Tauros meet, the basins of the Egridir, Beyşehir and Suğla lakes. In front of the Tauros chain east of these lakes, the Ala-Dağ and Alaca-Dağ massifs rise from the plateau and form the western limit of the Konya plain. The Cilician Tauros17 consists of rugged limestone and karst formations that rise steeply directly above the coast. Behind them tower even higher granite massifs, which in the north descend on ridges and finally into the plains of the southern central massif. This fold zone is broken through by the Göksu (Kalykadnos) and the Pozantı Çay at the «Kiliki Geography 37 Gate» (Fig. 67), which cuts 1000 m into the relief. Above the Cilician alluvial plain, the mountains are divided into two main chains with strike direction SW-NE, Tauros and Antitauros. Arabic plate The Arabic plate has a gentle relief. A series of wide, hilly plateaus flatten in the southwest to the Euphrates basin, in the middle to the Harran plain, and in the northeast to the Tigris basin. The plain is divided by the heights of the Karaca Dağ volcano (1957 m) in front of the plateau and the flatter, elongated ridge of the «Tur Abdin» north of Mardin. [[[Overall, Anatolia has a very high-contrast relief with sharp climatic contrasts. The wide "bridge" of the Massif Central offers easy passage, but at least in its drier southern part it does not have favorable settlement conditions. Anatolia is characterized by intense seismic activity. Since the Roman Empire, evidence and reports have added up to over 800 earthquakes. Even antiquity passed down - for example with the plaintive monody of Libanios on Nicomedeia (or. 61) or children killed with gravestones - shocking evidence of the regularly recurring suffering of the population. 38 I.