Is Taiwan's culture influential


Daniel Leese

Prof. Dr. Daniel Leese is Professor of Sinology at the Albert Ludwig University of Freiburg. His research interests lie in the area of ​​recent history and politics of China.

Mareike Ohlberg

Dr. Mareike Ohlberg is a research assistant at MERICS. Her main research interests are Chinese ideology and media politics, China's digital transformation, and developments in Hong Kong and Taiwan

Hans van Ess

Prof. Dr. Hans van Ess is Professor of Sinology at the LMU Munich. Areas of work are the history of Confucianism from its beginnings to the present day, Chinese historiography and classical Chinese literature, as well as Central Asian studies with a special focus on Mongolian Studies.

The period from 1949 onwards is only a short span of time in a long history of development, but it is nevertheless crucial for understanding today's China. Dealing with the millennia-old cultural tradition is an important part of a discourse directed by the Communist Party. Ideologically she represents a socialism with Chinese characteristics, which is supposed to consolidate her power.

Symbol of resurgence: the sculptures in front of Mao Zedong's mausoleum on Tiananmen Square in Beijing celebrate Mao as the liberator of China and encourage young people to emulate his role model. (& copy mood board / Getty Images)

Timeline (1949-2018)

Daniel Leese

October 1, 1949
Proclamation of the People's Republic of China by Mao Zedong; after the communists' victory, Chiang Kai-shek and his flee Guomindang-Toops to Taiwan, formation of a nationalist government in exile of the Republic of China

February 14, 1950
Conclusion of the Sino-Soviet friendship treaty; Orientation towards the example of the Soviet Union in many areas of politics

May 1, 1950
New marriage law breaks with patriarchal tradition

Chinese "Volunteer Associations" Prevent North Korean Defeat in Korean War; foreign policy gain in prestige of the young People's Republic of China

May 23, 1951
17-point agreement confirms Tibet's annexation to the People's Republic of China

Land reform ends with redistribution of rural property; Execution of former elites

First five-year plan based on the Soviet model comes into force

20th September 1954
PRC receives first constitution

Participation in the Geneva Indochina Conference and the Bandung Conference; Formulation of the "Five Principles of Peaceful Coexistence"

February 25, 1956
Nikita Khrushchev's secret speech at the 20th party congress of the CPSU initiates de-Stalinization

Attempt by Mao Zedong to correct undesirable developments with the Hundred Flower Campaign; public criticism leads to termination in June 1957

Persecution of critics and those who think differently in a campaign against "deviants"

Beginning of the "Great Leap Forward"; Collectivizations reach their peak with the establishment of the people's communes

Spring 1959
Uprisings in Tibet; Escape of the Dalai Lama to India

"Three bitter years": famine with over 30 million deaths as a consequence of the unsuccessful economic policy

August 1959
Defense Minister Peng Dehuai sacked after criticism at Lushan conference and replaced by Lin Biao

Political tensions lead to the withdrawal of Soviet economic advisors

Early 1962
Sharp criticism of big jump at 7000-roster conference; A brief economic change of course follows

September 1962
Mao Zedong emphasizes the need to continue the class struggle

Fall 1962
Sino-Indian border war

Open rift between PR China and the Soviet Union

Socialist education campaign to combat "revisionist" tendencies

PRC becomes a nuclear power; People's Liberation Army under Lin Biao enforces cult around Mao Zedong

Cultural revolution; Mass mobilization against remnants of "old culture" and "old thinking" as well as against "people who go the capitalist path"; President Liu Shaoqi, Party Secretary Deng Xiaoping and others. are overthrown

August 1966
"Red August": Mass meeting of the Red Guards with Mao Zedong in Beijing; Destruction of cultural monuments and terror against "reactionary authorities"

January 1967
Proclamation of the Shanghai commune and beginning of local seizures of power

1967 - September 1968
Nationwide establishment of revolutionary committees; Army's influence is increasing; Red Guards are forcibly sent across the country

March 1969
Military conflict between the PRC and the Soviet Union on the border river Ussuri

April 1969
9th Congress ends the mass phase of the Cultural Revolution and names Defense Minister Lin Biao as Mao Zedong's successor

November 1969
President Liu Shaoqi becomes the most prominent victim of the Cultural Revolution

September 13, 1971
Lin Biao dies while attempting to escape by plane over Outer Mongolia

October 25, 1971
PRC replaces Republic of China (Taiwan) in the United Nations Security Council

February 1972
US President Richard Nixon visits China; the one-China policy is emphasized in the Shanghai Communiqué

Campaign to criticize Lin Biao and Confucius; Rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping

April 5th 1976
Unofficial commemoration of the deceased Zhou Enlai on Tiananmen Square leads to protests against cultural revolutionary policies; Deng Xiaoping's second fall

July 1976
Earthquake in the north Chinese city of Tangshan kills around 250,000

September 9, 1976
Death of Mao Zedong; His successor is Hua Guofeng, beginning of the first reform efforts

October 6, 1976
Arrest of the "Gang of Four" around Mao's wife Jiang Qing

July 1977
Second rehabilitation of Deng Xiaoping

December 1978
Third plenum of the Eleventh Central Committee officially approves reform and opening-up policy; "Four modernizations" as the core program

Late 1978–1979
Democracy Wall Movement

Spring 1979
The Vietnamese occupation of Cambodia is followed by the Sino-Vietnamese war

March 1979
Deng Xiaoping defines "four basic principles"

Agrarian reforms and abandonment of the people's communes

One-child policy compulsory for urban populations

May 1980
First special economic zone opened in Shenzhen

"Gang of Four" convicted by Special Court for Crimes of the Cultural Revolution; History resolution defines Mao Zedong's faults

September 1980
Zhao Ziyang replaces Hua Guofeng as Prime Minister

June 1981
Hu Yaobang replaces Hua Guofeng as party chairman (from 1982 general secretary)