How did the Sumerian culture end
Annotated course catalog summer semester 2000
Lecture: Introduction to Ancient Near Eastern Studies. An overview
The lecture offers an overview of the history, cultural history and religion of the oldest high culture in human history, which emerged in Mesopotamia in the late 4th millennium BC and shaped the countries of the Near East for more than 3 millennia.
Prerequisites for participation: none; for students of all faculties
Introductory literature: B. Hrouda, The old Orient, Munich 1991; W. von Soden, Introduction to Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Darmstadt 1985.
Lecture: Hittite Religions
PD Dr. Bold
Among the provinces of the religious history of antiquity, the Hittite has a special position due to its rich textual tradition, which is underlined by the relatively old age of the testimonies (16th - 13th centuries BC). Very numerous cult rituals are more or (in many cases) less fully comprehensible to us in mostly meticulous descriptions. They convey a vivid picture of the cult practices of various ethnic groups that were united in the Hittite Empire or that had influenced the Hittite (state) religion. There is just as abundant evidence of descriptions of magical rituals with the help of which one sought to solve problems of private and public life beyond the official cult. The belief in the causality of guilt or (magical) contamination and impending or actual doom or misfortune has fostered an abundance of divination practices, with which one pursued both cause research and determination as well as the respective (possibly magical) ways to eliminate the calamity . Myths, prayers and statements, for example in legal and in general 'profane' literature, contribute to the understanding of the religious and world conceptions behind the ritual and magical acts.
Eligibility requirements: none
Literature (a small selection): H.G. Freight trestle, Religion and cult of the Hittites, in: G. Walser (ed.), Recent research on the Hittites (Historia individual writings, issue 7), 54-73; Oliver R. Gurney, Some Aspects of Hittite Religion (The Schweich Lectures), Oxford 1976; Volkert Haas, History of the Hittite religion, in: Handbuch der Orientalistik, I. Abt., Volume 15, Leiden-New York-Cologne 1994 (with detailed bibliography).
Seminar: Sumerian songs in the Emesal dialect
Although Sumerian was spoken as early as the 2nd millennium BC. BC when the spoken language died out, it remained the cult language of Mesopotamia. Hymns of the gods and lamentations, which were first recorded in writing with the extinction of Sumerian, but were probably in use long before, remained an essential part of regular worship until the fall of cuneiform script in the Seleucid period. They were created by the so-called (sum .: gala; akk .: kalû), accompanied by the playing of harps and timpani, sung in a Sumerian dialect called (Emesal), which was originally probably a sociolect of women. Emesal songs have been preserved in numerous text representatives from 2 millennia.
In the seminar, based on selected texts, the genres of the Emesal songs (kalûtu) to be presented and examined.
Prerequisites for participation: intermediate examination in Assyriology, good basic knowledge of Sumerian
Proof of achievement: Exercises accompanying the course.
Literature: M. K. Schretter, Emesal studies. Studies of the history of language and literature on the so-called Sumerian women's language, 1990; on Balag: M. E. Cohen, The Canonical Lamentations of Ancient Mesopotamia, Vol. I and II, Potomac Maryland 1988; J.A. Black (1987) BiOr 44: 32-79; R. Borger BiOr 47: 5-39 (1990); Shemma: Sumerian Hymnology: The Ershemma (HUCA Supplements No. 2); Appearance: S. M. Maul, Heart calming suits, Wiesbaden 1988; Schuila: S. M. Maul, Fs. Borger, Cuneiform Monographs 10, Groningen 1998, pp. 159-197 (with further literature).
Seminar: Assyrian and Hittite state rituals - a comparison
Prof. Maul, Dr. Prechel
When Assyria in the 14th century BC BC expanded and rose to become a major political power in the Middle East, contacts with the Anatolian-Syrian Hittite Empire were inevitable. The Assyrian-Hittite relationship was soon characterized by political and military conflicts of interest. While the political relationship between the two states can be regarded as largely researched, little attention has been paid to the cultural dimensions of the Assyrian-Hittite relationship. Assyrian annals, chronicles, edicts and state treaties, which have no equivalent from southern Mesopotamia (Babylonia), seem to be influenced to a considerable extent by Hittite models. The aim of the seminar is to examine the extent to which the state rituals of both kingdoms (e.g. New Year celebrations; substitute kingship rituals) have influenced one another.
Prerequisites for participation: Intermediate examination in Assyriology; Knowledge of Hittite is desirable, but not a requirement
Literature: Beckman, G., Mesopotamians and Mesopotamian Learning at Hattusa, in: Journal of Cuneiform Studies 35 (1983) 97-114; Deller, K., The Assyrian Eunuchs and Their Predecessors, in: K. Watanabe (ed.), Priests and Officials in the Ancient Near East (1999) 303-311; Haas, V., History of the Hittite religion, Leiden / New York / Cologne 1994; Hagenbuchner, A., The correspondence of the Hittites, Heidelberg 1989; Hoffner, H., Syrian Cultural Influence in Hatti, in: BiMes 25 (1992) 89-106; Müller, K.F., The Assyrian ritual , in: MVAeG 41/3 (1937) 1-91; Nissen, H./Renger, J. (Eds.) Mesopotamia and its neighbors BBVO 1 ^ Berlin 19872; Oettinger, N., The military oaths of the Hittites, Wiesbaden 1976; Pongratz lasts, B. New Year (sfest) B, in: RlA 9 (1999) 294-298 (with further literature)
Seminar: The becoming of the world from the point of view of modern physics and ancient oriental myths
Prof. Maul, Prof. Hüfner
According to the findings of modern natural science, our cosmos arose 15 billion years ago in big bang, our planetary system 4 billion years ago and life 2 billion years ago. These points in time mark the beginnings of developments. These are presented from the point of view of modern physics together with the empirical evidence.
Although the ancient oriental cultures of the Sumerians, Assyrians and Babylonians did not know the scientific experiment in the current sense, they developed very detailed ideas of the creation and recorded them in the form of cuneiform creation myths (and other texts). The emergence of one out of undifferentiated matter, the emergence of space with the sun and planets, the formation of the earth and the emergence of life are described there as the work of God the Creator. Surprisingly, the phases of this creation process essentially correspond to the phases of development that modern physics postulates for it.
In presentations by physicists and ancient orientalists, the scientific findings of modern natural science are to be compared with the corresponding ideas of the Mesopotamian cultures and commonalities and deviations of the respective models are worked out in discussions. The exciting question will also have to be discussed whether valid statements about the material world can be achieved without the methods of modern natural science and whether methods and findings of natural science are not just as culturally and temporally bound as the ideas of one before civilization that has been lost for more than 2 millennia.
The prerequisite for the success of the seminar is that the participants succeed in conveying the basic ideas of their respective discipline to the representatives of the other scientific culture (humanities or natural sciences) at a high scientific level in a language that enables real dialogue.
Last but not least, the seminar should stimulate new connections between the humanities and the natural sciences.
The number of participants is limited.
Preliminary discussion and distribution of the presentations: Wednesday, May 3rd, 10.30 a.m., Sandgasse 7, lecture hall 010
1. Physics: * S. Weinberg: The first 3 minutes, Piper, DM 16.90; A. Unsöld, B. Baschek, Der neue Kosmos, Springer, 98.00 DM; R. Meixner: History of the earth, Beck, 14.80 DM.
2. Assyriology: * W. G. Lambert, in: O. Kaiser et al. (Ed.), Texts from the Environment of the Old Testament III / 4, Gütersloh 1994, pp. 565-602 (German translation of the most important Mesopotamian creation myth Enuma elish; a more reliable English translation: B. Foster, Before the Muses. An Anthology of Akkadian Literature, Bethesda / Maryland 1993, pp. 351-402). Also: J. Bottéro, Les textes cosmogoniques mineurs en langue akkadienne, in: ders., Mythes et rites de Babylone, Genève / Paris 1985; J.J.A van Dijk, Le motif cosmique dans la pensée sumérienne, AcOr 28 (1964/65), 1-59; A. Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis, The Story of Creation, 2nd Edition, Chicago 1951; M. Krebernik, mother goddess. A. I. In Mesopotamien, Reallexikon der Assyriologie Vol. 8 (1997), 502-516; W. G. Lambert, The Relationship of Sumerian and Babylonian Myths as Seen in Accounts of Creation, in: CRRA 38, Paris 1992, 129-135; G. Pettinato, The ancient oriental image of man and the Sumerian and Akkadian creation myths, Heidelberg 1971; H. Sauren, Nammu and Enki, in: Fs. W. W. Hallo 1993, 198-208.
Seminar: Sumerian texts from the Akkad period (incantations, letters, legal documents)
The Akkadian period is characterized by the juxtaposition of Akkadian and Sumerian texts. In southern Mesopotamia, the locals continued to write mostly Sumerian, but there are also often Akkadian administrative texts. Sometimes a text begins in Sumerian and ends in Akkadian, such as a letter from Nippur (FAOS 19, 126f. Nip 1, lines 1-7 Sum., From line 8 Acc.).
In this seminar, the aim is for the students to familiarize themselves with the various types of text and get to know their particularities and differences to the more recent equivalents. In addition, the linguistic peculiarities of Sumerian in ancient Akkadian times will also be discussed.
Prerequisite for participation: Intermediate examination in Assyriology
Literature: B. Kienast, The Sumerian and Akkadian Letters = Freiburg Old Oriental Studies, Vol. 19; G. Cunningham, 'Deliver me from Evil'. Mesopotamian Incantations 2500-1500 BC = Studia Pohl: Series maior Vol. 17, 49-64; I. Gelb, P. Steinkeller, R. Whiting, Earliest Land Tenure Systems in the Near East: Ancient Kudurrus = Oriental Institute Publications, Vol. 104, No. 38-45, 47-52; DO. Edzard, Sumerian legal document of the III. Millennium, Munich 1968; Yang Zhi, Sargonic Inscriptions from Adab = Periodic Publications on Ancient Civilizations 1, 116-132; A. Westenholz, Old Sumerian and Old Akkadian Texts in Philadelphia Part 2 = CNI Publications 3, nos. 44-78
Seminar: Gilgamesh's death
After reading in the winter semester 1999/2000, this follows in the summer semester 2000. This Sumerian poetry was previously known only through two fragmentary texts. New text finds in Mà-Turan (Tell Haddad) made it possible to complete it, but there are still gaps. The composition should be about 305 lines. A. Cavigneaux and F. Al-Rawi are preparing their edition. A. George published a first translation.
The composition begins with the report that Gilgamesh is dying. The god Enki sends him a dream in which he sees how his future fate is being discussed in the assembly of the gods. Although Gilgamesh, although the son of a goddess, must die and go to the underworld, he is supposed to sit there next to Ningizzida and Dumuzi in order to speak rightly about the dead.
Upon waking, Gilgamesh is confused and tells someone his dream to get advice on its meaning. The answer is that death is inevitable even for him as king, but that he should be pleased that the gods give him such a high rank in the underworld. Gilgamesh then gives the order to build his grave. On instructions from Enki, he should divert the river and lay his stone grave in the river bed. His wives and servants go to the grave to accompany Gilgamesh into the afterlife. After making sacrifices to Ereschkigal, the grave is closed and the river is passed over it. The text ends with explanations about the meaning of death and statues of the deceased in the temples.
Prerequisite for participation: Intermediate examination in Assyriology
Literature: A. Cavigneaux, Gilgamesch et la Mort, Textes de Tell Haddad VI = Library of Oriental Texts, Vol. 3, Groningen 2000? A. George, The Epic of Gilgamesh, New York 1999, 195-208 G. Pettinato, La saga di Gilgamesh, Milano 1992, 343-347
In general about death and conceptions of the afterlife: see the articles compiled in (ed. B. Alster) = Mesopotamia 8 (Copenhagen 1980) (especially by Th. Jacobsen, J. Bottéro and W.G. Lambert)
Seminar: Historical texts from Hatti in Akkadian language
State treaties, annals, edicts and other cuneiform documents from the Hittite capital Hattusa that can be described in the broader sense as historical texts are (also) preserved in Akkadian-language copies. Sometimes these are parts of a bilingual, and it is not always clear in which language the original was written. These and other problems should be taken into account when reading, as well as the peculiarities of so-called Bogazköy-Akkadian.
Prerequisites for participation: Intermediate examination in Assyriology
Proof of achievement: Exercises accompanying the course.
Literature: H.G. Güterbock, The historical tradition and its literary design among Babylonians and Hittites up to 1200, in: ZA 42, 1934, 1-91, ZA 44, 1936, 45-145; Klengel, H. (Ed.), History of the Hittite Empire, Leiden / Boston / Cologne 1999; G. Beckman, JCS 47 (1995) 23ff .; E. Weidner, Political Documents from Asia Minor, Leipzig 1923; R. Labat, L'Akkadien de Boghaz-koy, Bordeaux 1932; J. Durham, Studies in Bogazköy Akkadian, Havard 1976
Start: May 9th
Seminar: The Archeology of the Diyala Area
The Diyala area, located northeast of Baghdad and named after a tributary river of the Tigris, is not only one of the most interesting, but also undoubtedly one of the most important find regions in the Middle East. The archaeological, philological and historical results obtained there have made a decisive contribution to ancient Near Eastern studies and have had a lasting impact on it to this day.
The trend-setting findings for the entire subject include the periodization of the Early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC), the so-called, into the three sections Early Dynastic I, II and IIIa / b (ED I-IIIa / b ) based on the determined stratigraphy; the historical typology of Mesopotamian temples as well as the artistic stylistic development in round and relief art (e.g. praying figures, dedicatory plates), glyptics and handicrafts (e.g. metallurgy). In addition, a ceramic typology that is binding for Mesopotamia was developed for the first time for this area and, in contrast to many older and contemporary excavations, there was also a targeted investigation of the residential buildings.
The American Schools of Oriental Research, the University Museum Philadelphia and the Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago initiated there as part of their joint "Iraq Expedition" of Systematic excavations from 1930 to 1938.
During this period, the excavation team, led by Pinhas Delougaz, Henri Frankfort, Thorkild Jacobsen and Seton Lloyd, examined the great ruined mounds of Chafadschi (Tutub), Tell Asmar (E · nunna) and Tell Agrab, the extensive temple and private house complexes with numerous tombs and hid a palace-like complex. Both the methodical and findings-oriented approach of the excavators on site, as well as the professional and easily manageable form of the publications in the Oriental Institute Publications (OIP) are still considered innovative in archaeological field research - measured against the time at that time.
The focus of the seminar is on the sacred and profane architecture of the aforementioned sites with their rich material legacies. Particular attention should be paid to the relationship between the find and the place of discovery, which can be observed particularly well in the Diyala area due to the excavation technique practiced, such as the dumping of house and temple inventories, the identification of votive offerings and liturgical implements or the complex and Equipment of graves.Based on this, it is necessary to develop further questions in two areas: On the one hand, the finds and findings of the Diyala area should be compared with one another in order to be able to recognize any local characteristics and traditions (e.g. differentiation of different architectural styles / workshops). On the other hand, the architecture and monuments of this region must be put in relation to the rest of Mesopotamia in order to form a judgment about their meaning and status in the overall Mesopotamian context. In this context, the differences between the Anglo-Saxon and the German chronological system as well as the related consequences for the art and cultural history of the ancient Orient are discussed.
The certificates that are acquired in this event can - thanks to the kind courtesy of Prof. Dr. Maul and Mr. HD Dr. Blocher optional for the subject Assyriology or Near Eastern Archeology to be issued.
The number and content of the planned presentation topics depends primarily on the number of participants, but it is certainly possible to tailor individual topics to the interests and specialization of the participant.
Those interested in the seminar can register from March 7th, 2000.
Eligibility requirements: none
Proof of achievement: oral presentation (max. 45 min.) / (Max. One A4 page)
General / introductory literature: E. Strommenger, M. Hirmer, Five Millennia Mesopotamia. The art from the beginning around 5000 BC. up to Alexander the Great (Munich 1962); B. Hrouda, Western Asia I. Mesopotamia, Babylonia, Iran and Anatolia. Handbook of Archeology (Munich 1971); W. Orthmann (among others), Der Alte Orient. Propylaea Art History 14 (Berlin 1975); S. Lloyd, The Archeology of Mesopotamia (Munich 1981); A. Moortgat, The Art of Ancient Mesopotamia. The classical art of the Middle East. I. Sumer and Akkad (Cologne 1982); E. Heinrich, Temples and Sanctuaries in Ancient Mesopotamia. Typology, Morphology and History. Monuments of Ancient Architecture 14 (Berlin 1984); S. Lloyd, H.W. Müller, Egypt and the Middle East. World History of Architecture (1987); B. Hrouda (among others), The Old Orient. History and culture of the ancient Near East (Gütersloh 1991); H.J. Nissen, History of the Ancient Near East. Oldenbourg floor plan of history (Munich 1999).
Special literature: H. Frankfort, Sculpture of the third Millennium B.C. from Tell Asmar and Khafajah. OIP XLIV (Chicago, Ill. 1939); H. Frankfort, S. Lloyd, Th. Jacobsen, The Gimilsin Temple and the Palace of the Rulers at Tell Asmar. OIP XLIII (Chicago, Ill. 1940); P. Delougaz, The Temple Oval at Khafajah. OIP LIII (Chicago, Ill. 1940); H. Frankfort, Th. Jacobsen, Pre-Sargonid Temples in the Diyala Region. OIP LVIII (Chicago, Ill. 1942); P. Delougaz, Pottery from the Diyala Region. OIP LXIII (Chicago, Ill. 1952); H. Frankfort, Stratified Cylinder Seals from the Diyala Region. OIP LXXII (Chicago, Ill. 1955); P. Delougaz, H.D. Hill, S. Lloyd, Private Houses and Graves in the Diyala Region. OIP LXXXVIII (Chicago, Ill. 1967); P. Delougaz, Old Babylonian Public Buildings in the Diayala Region. I. Excavations at Ishchali. II. Khafajah Mounds B, C and D. OIP 98 (Chicago, Ill. 1990).
Start: Probably 16.05.00
Seminar: Babylonian Prayers
Numerous prayers to the great gods of the pantheon have survived from Babylonia and Assyria. Most of these are literary texts in the Babylonian language, which are available in several copies. Such prayers are among other things the official cult, which is shown in the fact that prayer incipits are often mentioned in ritual instructions. Few free prayers have survived.
In the seminar, an overview of the different types of hymns and prayers is developed using text examples.
Prerequisite for participation: Akkadian II
Proof of performance: Exercises accompanying the course
Literature: J.A. Craig, Assyrian and Babylonian Religious Texts, Vol. 1, AB 13, Leipzig 1895 and Vol. 2, AB 13, Leipzig 1897; E. Ebeling, Death and Life According to the Ideas of the Babylonians, Berlin / Leipzig 1931; E. Ebeling, The Akkadian Prayer Series, Berlin 1953; L.W. King, Babylonian Magic and Sorcery-being, London 1896; W.G. Lambert, Three Literary Prayers of the Babylonians, AfO 19 (1959-60), 47-66; W.G. Lambert, Nabû Hymns on Cylinders, in: B. Hruschka, G. Komoroczy (eds.), Festschrift Lubor Matousch II, Budapest 1978, 75-111; W. Mayer, Investigations into the Babylonian formal language, St. Pohl SM 5, Rome 1976; W. Mayer, Six Schu-ila-Gebete, OrNS 59 (1990), 449-490; W. Mayer, A hymn to Ninurta as a helper in need, OrNS 61 (1992), 17-57; J. Pinckert, Hymns and Prayers to Nebo, LSS 3 / IV, Leipzig 1920
Seminar: The harem in the ancient Orient
Dr. Frahm, Dr. Heeßel
and are key terms that have played an important role in the assyriological discussion so far about the social status of women of the Mesopotamian social elite, especially those from the ruler's circle. Recently, in the context of the - and the - debate, the question has been raised whether these terms, which come from the Islamic cultural area, can really be transferred to the conditions in the ancient Orient. On the basis of reading various source texts (letters, documents from the palace administration, laws, so-called and others), the aim of the seminar is to examine how the legal position, the economic scope and the development opportunities of the women of ancient oriental rulers can be described more adequately. Particular attention should be paid to the question of the relationship between - and the ruler and the special role of the Queen Mother. The dimension of ruling polygamy (keyword: dynastic marriage) will also have to be discussed.
Prerequisites for participation: Knowledge of Akkadian
Proof of achievement: Exercises accompanying the course, possibly short presentations
Literature: J. Assante, The kar.kid / harimtu, Prostitute or Single Woman? A Reconsideration of the Evidence, Ugarit-Forschungen 30 (1998), 5-96; C. Kühne, Ammistamru and the daughter of, Ugarit-Forschungen 5 (1973), 175-184; M. Van De Mieroop, Cuneiform Texts and the Writing of History, London 1999, 147-150; W. Röllig, marriage, political, Reallexikon der Assyriologie und Vorderasiatischen Aräologie, Vol. 4 (1972-75), 282-287; E. Weidner,, Archive for Orient Research 17 (1954-56), 257-293; R. Westbrook, Old Babylonian Marriage Law, Archive for Orient Research, Beih. 23, Vienna 1988; N. Ziegler, Le Harem de Zimrî-lîm, Mémoires de N.A.B.U. 5, Paris 1999.
Exercise: Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) II
Building on the introductory course Akkadian I, the participants are now to be introduced to complete Akkadian texts. The focus is initially on ancient Babylonian letters and the famous so-called Codex Hammurapi. Furthermore, knowledge of the Babylonian literary language of the 1st millennium BC is based on selected texts. Mediated.
Prerequisites for participation: Akkadian (Assyrian-Babylonian) I
Proof of achievement: Exercises accompanying the course.
Literature: R. Borger, Assyrisch-Babylonische Lesestücke, 2nd edition, Rome 1979; W. von Soden, Grundriß der Akkadian grammar, 3rd edition, Rome 1995
Exercise: Sumerian I
Introduction to the Sumerian language: Sumerian is one of the agglutinating languages like Hurrian and Urartian or today Turkish, Hungarian and Basque. Sumerian became in the 3rd millennium BC. Spoken in southern Mesopotamia and died shortly after 2000 BC. BC as a spoken language, but remained the language of cult and religion until the end of the cuneiform cultures.
Eligibility requirements: none
Proof of achievement: Exercises accompanying the course
Literature: M.-L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language (Mesopotamia. Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology Vol. 10) 1984 and own teaching materials
Exercise: Lighter legal texts (continuation of Sumerian II)
On the one hand, the legal texts provide information about legal practices and ideas in the New Sumerian era. On the other hand, they are formulated very precisely in accordance with legal requirements and contain many constructions of subordinate clauses, but also verbatim speech. Therefore, they are particularly suitable for students with a basic knowledge of Sumerian to deepen their knowledge of the verbal system, the formation of subordinate clauses and syntax.
Prerequisites for participation: Participation in Sumerian II
Proof of achievement: Final exam as part of the intermediate examination in Assyriology
Literature: M.-L. Thomsen, The Sumerian Language (Mesopotamia. Copenhagen Studies in Assyriology Vol. 10) 1984
A. Falkenstein, Neusumerische Rechtsurkunden, Vol. I-III, Munich 1956 E. Sollberger, in: Alter Orient und Altes Testament Vol. 25 (= Festschrift SN Kramer) 435-450, M. Cig - H. Kizilyay - A. Falkenstein , Zeitschrift für Assyriologie 53, 51-92, M. Malul, Acta Sumerologica (Japan) 11, 145-154, T. Gomi - S. Sato, Selected Neo-Sumerian Administrative Texts from the British Museum No. 125, 192f., 210f., 220, 320f., 333f., 360, 372-374; P. Steinkeller, Sale Documents of the Ur III-Period = Freiburg Ancient Near Eastern Studies, Vol. 17.
Exercise: Hittite laws
PD Dr. Bold
The Hittite laws form one of the great collections of laws of the ancient Orient. Accompanying the eventful history of the Hittite Empire, as it were, over the period between the 16th and 13th centuries BC. The 200 paragraphs, which have been handed down in the past and have been amended many times, provide important insights into legal and everyday life in Anatolia in the middle of the 2nd millennium BC. In the exercise, questions of interpretation as well as the language layers of the text transmission as well as the palaeography of the text representatives should be dealt with.
Prerequisite for participation: knowledge of Hittite
Literature: Frédéric Hrozny, Code hittite provenant de l'Asie mineure, Paris 1922; Ernst Neufeld, The Hittite Laws, London 1951; Johannes Friedrich, The Hittite Laws, Leiden 1959; H. G. Güterbock, JCS 15, 1961, 62-78; 16 G, 17-23; Fiorella Imparati, Le leggi ittiti, (Incunabula Graeca VII) Rome 1964; V. Korojec,, in: Handbuch der Orientalistik, I. Abt., Erg.-Bd. III, Leiden 1964, 177-186; id. ,, in: Reallexikon der Assyriologie III, 1969, 288-297; E. von Schuler, The Hittite Laws, in: Texts from the environment of the Old Testament I: Rechtsbücher (ed. O. Kaiser), Gütersloh 1982; Harry A. Hoffner, The Laws of the Hittites, A. Critical Edition, Leiden 1997.
Akkadian II tutorial
In the tutorial, the knowledge of the vocabulary and grammar of Akkadian as well as the basic knowledge of cuneiform writing are deepened through exercises and the reading of easy texts. Participation is compulsory for all listeners of the Akkadian II exercise.
Start: Probably 05.00
Tutorial on Sumerian I
The tutorial includes exercises on grammar, vocabulary and learning cuneiform as well as reading easy texts.
Start: Probably 05.00
- How would India be without Nehru
- What does the crown molding do
- Why are religious people at war
- What is your rating of Directi
- Who are the strangest quorans you know
- Are there training courses on RPA
- Who is the best Physiotherapist in Gurgaon
- Should cricket be banned in India
- What are the Benefits of Pediatric Software
- How do Austrian and German surnames differ?
- The demonization had seriously affected your business
- How does the wind speed affect the weather?
- What is the most overrated flower
- Debt relief programs are worthwhile
- Does Japanese sound like Chinese to you?
- How do I save texts on the iPhone
- How does load balancing work
- Christianity is just a phase of religion
- How can I control my voice pitch
- Are quora's days numbered
- You can take pictures from googleplex
- What is the most unfair
- What is some information about government jobs
- What is the latest technology in instrument technology