What are our list of civil liberties

Political and Civil Rights

The central document, in which protective rights and freedoms were anchored, is the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) or in short: the UN civil pact. It was adopted by the United Nations General Assembly on December 16, 1966 () and entered into force on March 23, 1976. It has so far been ratified by 173 states (as of September 2020).

The rights enshrined in the ICCPR can be assigned to six areas: the right to life, the protection of privacy, the prohibition of torture or the right to humane treatment in prison are examples of rights in the first area, which includes the rights to protect personal integrity (protective rights ). The area of ​​civil liberties guarantees rights such as the free choice of residence, freedom of expression or freedom of religion and belief. So-called procedural rights ensure, among other things, equal treatment before the law, fair judicial proceedings or the prohibition of retroactive criminal law. The fourth area secures political rights. The ban on discrimination in the fifth area protects all people from any form of discrimination “such as in particular because of race, skin color, gender, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or of other status ”and ensures equal treatment of men and women in all areas of the civil pact. The sixth area protects minority rights.

Together with the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (Social Pact) and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), the ICCPR forms the core of the human rights standardization of the United Nations: the "International Charter of Human Rights" Rights ").

The Human Rights Committee (a body of 18 independent experts elected by the contracting states) is responsible for monitoring the implementation of the Covenant. The states report regularly to the committee, which publishes concluding remarks based on them. The Committee also issues general comments that explain in detail its interpretation of the provisions of the Convention.
The civil pact also provides for a complaint procedure for states; a State party can accuse another before the Human Rights Committee of a violation of the civil covenant.

At the same time as the civil pact, the first optional protocol to the pact also came into force. It extends the powers of the committee to include an individual complaints procedure so that individuals with a complaint can turn to the committee if they see their rights guaranteed by the civil pact violated by a state that has ratified the Optional Protocol. So far (as of September 2020) the Optional Protocol has been ratified by 116 states. The second Optional Protocol was adopted by the UN General Assembly in December 1989 and entered into force in July 1991. It provides for the abolition of the death penalty in countries that ratify the Optional Protocol. So far (as of September 2020) the Optional Protocol has been ratified by 88 states.