Why is advertising necessary in tourism

Cultural Tourism in Tourism Promotion - Translational Aspects of Translating Brochures Using the Example of the City of Poznań

Table of Contents

1 Introduction: question

2 cultural tourism
2.1 Who are you, tourist?
2.1.1 Cultural tourism and other types of tourism
2.1.2 Vacation Expectations
2.1.3 Cultural tourism in the city
2.2 Cultural tourism - definition of terms
2.2.1 Culture definition
2.2.2 Relations between culture and tourism
2.3 Excursus: intercultural communication through tourism

3 Tourist advertising
3.1. Communication process in advertising
3.2 Advertising and its purpose
3.3 Advertising vs. public relations / PR
3.4 Advertising material
3.5 Advertising Effect
3.5.1 The classic AIDA model
3.5.2 The model by Kroeber-Riel and Weinberg
3.6 Types of Advertising
3.7 Language vs. image

4 translation problems
4.1 Translation
4.2 Types of translation
4.3 Advertising texts from a translational point of view
4.3.1 Text function and text type
4.3.2 Translation of tourist advertising texts

5 Analysis of Nord
5.1 method
5.1.1 Factors external to the text
5.1.2 Internal text factors
5.1.3 Procedure
5.2 Empirical material

6 Translational comparison
6.1 Text-external features of the AT
6.2 Text-internal features of the AT
6.3 Translations
6.4 Interpretation of the results

7 concluding remarks



1 Introduction: question

Culture is a broad and often discussed term that is used in a variety of ways. The tourism industry uses culture to attract tourists, including on city trips, which I would like to consider based on the empirical material. That culture in tourism and at the same time in tourism advertising, e.g. B. is present in the city brochures in the form of cultural tourism, is the first thesis of my work.

This fact is due to the demand that exists on the part of tourists. I present these under types of tourism and holiday expectations without focusing on individual countries. Such a distinction would have to be made in the context of a different analysis and check whether the offer is adapted to the special customer needs from different countries.

For the present work it is crucial that culture functions in cultural tourism. But I will not determine the culture myself, nor will I be able to show which culture is used in advertising, because this is a detailed culture definition analysis[1] and would require a clear cultural structure. In the context of this work, I will accept these events as cultural, which the advertising authors perceive as such and which are placed in this category. I deal with culture in a Hansen-neutral sense without classifying it. On the other hand, I will explain what is specifically understood as cultural tourism, because this type of tourism is important for advertising as a travel motif.

The interplay of culture and tourism seems to be very interesting in this sense, because for some authors the terms become very vague names. At this point, the possible intercultural communication should also be mentioned, which can come about here because it is closely related to culture in tourism.

Cultural tourism or culture is supported and made known by tourist advertising. Therefore, in the second part, I will show the goals of advertising and what can be achieved with it. The question of the extent to which advertising differs from public relations work is also examined and whether such a separation is even possible for brochures. For the translation-scientific analysis I need empirical material, which in this work consists of printed advertising material in the form of brochures, which is why this form is explained.

I will also present the general advertising effect, although I cannot check the end effect. That is why it is not in my interest to analyze which tourist demand groups the advertising should be aimed at and whether the effect is successful with such a focus division, whereby of course I present the general rules of target group determination. It is important for me to show that you can use different types of advertising and that both language and images play a decisive role here. For this aspect, I will therefore also explain the interplay of language and image, whereby one must pay attention to the simplified conclusions regarding their functions.

The second thesis of the present work is that culture is used as a kind of advertising medium in the city brochures due to the interest of cultural travelers and the presence of the cultural part in a brochure advertising text can lead to difficulties in translation. This problem is dealt with on the basis of a text analysis based on translation.

Therefore, I will investigate the question of what is meant by translation and what types of translation it is here. I would also like to introduce how one should translate the advertising or brochures as a special type of text so that the text function is retained.

How this is achieved I will analyze with the help of Christiane Nord's model, which is presented in more detail in the thesis. A description of the method takes place, taking into account external and internal factors. For this purpose, I will only be able to consider those brochures that are a translation and not a redesign for the various - in this case foreign - target groups, because these prospectus versions would have to be examined, taking into account advertising impact factors, whether such an adjustment was necessary. However, the work deals with the translational aspects in the sense of Janich's first field of investigation and therefore concentrates on the area of ​​translation.

For the analysis I used materials from the city of Poznań in Poland. The decision to choose a city is explained in the course of the work. This is followed by a translational comparison (Polish - German - English) with subsequent interpretation of the results in the practical part.

2 cultural tourism

Before I designate cultural tourism as a specific tourist phenomenon, it is necessary to define what is meant by the term tourist, which tourism groups there are and what expectations they have of the holiday.

2.1 Who are you, tourist?

Travel is basically not a basic human need, whereby Freyer states that an annual vacation trip is no longer a luxury these days. Tourism is therefore something that many can afford and that they are reluctant to do without (cf. Freyer 2006: 73).

Tourists are people who do not stay outside their usual environment for more than a year and do not do any paid work in the new location. Such a definition of tourists is presented by Opaschowski based on the World Tourism Organization. He also shows that these provisions are important because they exclude trips to the place of residence or routine trips, long-term hikes and hikes to do work (cf. Opaschowski 1996: 20).

Opaschowski also briefly defines the characteristics of travelers. According to him, tourists use the tourist infrastructure by consuming economic and cultural goods without doing productive work, but causing a temporary shift in purchasing power (cf. ibid.). This would be a general definition of what can be understood by the term. However, among tourists there are specific types according to which one can separate the tourist demand.

2.1.1 Cultural tourism and other types of tourism

The purpose of a trip is the decisive criterion for classifying the types of vacation. Opaschowski draws attention to this important fact (cf. ibid .: 21) and also presents a segmentation of European tourists. Based on a study by the BAT Leisure Research Institute[2] he presents ten market segments[3] and including the following types of vacation (cf. ibid .: 192ff.), which are only briefly characterized here, with the exception of cultural tourism, which deserves a longer consideration (cf. point 2.2):

- Relaxation vacation (relaxation, rest)
- Nature vacation (experience nature in a beautiful landscape and breathe in the fresh air)
- Sun vacation (enjoy the sun in the warm climate)
- Adventure vacation (experience)
- Spontaneous leave (freedom and independence, without a program or plan)
- Cultural vacation (admire art and sights, cultural impressions)
- Pleasure vacation (having fun and enjoying yourself, but also freedom from everyday worries and time pressure)
- Contact vacation (getting to know people, opportunity for new contacts, but also a change of scenery)
- Active vacation (exercise and sporting activities)
- Comfort vacation (pampering, wellbeing)

Some types of vacation overlap and there will often be mixed types of vacation for tourists. For me, however, it is important that cultural vacations appear as a separate form of vacation and that they have special characteristics that can be used as a basis for the empirical analysis of brochures.

Other authors also have a vacation breakdown, but this is based on a different separation. Haas, for example, distinguishes six groups within which there is a tourist demand (cf. Haas 1998: 1580):

- recreational tourism, e.g. B. Holiday or spa tourists
- cultural tourism, e.g. B. Educational trips
- social tourism, e.g. B. Family or club tourism
- Sports and adventure tourism
- business tourism, e.g. B. Business or trade fair tourists
- policy-oriented tourism, e.g. B. Diplomatic trips

This subdivision seems to go a little further than Opaschowski's because other tourist motifs are mentioned here, although there are fewer groups. The groups are more clearly delimited and there is no overlap between the demand groups. Of course, it cannot be ruled out that tourists associate themselves with different types of vacation. However, it would be easier to classify them into a certain group than with Opaschowski. It is interesting that cultural tourism appears as a separate category, which indirectly speaks for the importance of this tourism industry.

In contrast, Freyer has as motives[4] defines five groups of a trip and provides the following description for them (cf. Freyer 2001: 29f.):

- Recreational or leisure tourists - Leisure travel for recreation and pleasure, e.g. B. Beach tourism; Freyer also includes educational tourism, which can function as a type of cultural tourism
- Business tourists - trips to business partners, conference, seminar and trade fair tourism
- Spa tourists - trips for the purpose of a spa stay that is health-related and prescribed by a doctor, but also health tourism, e.g. B. Fitness trips to traditional health resorts
- Private tourists - trips to relatives and friends
- non-travelers

The identification of typologies was important in order to explain that such a demand group as cultural tourists has definitely established itself. Another clue to this is that culture is among the various vacation expectations.

2.1.2 Vacation Expectations

There are different expectations that one has of a successful vacation, because there are many groups of travelers who go on a trip. Opaschowski divides such motives with reference to Germany, but they can be viewed as general travel motives. It is a bundle of motifs that is based on relaxation, but also includes several elements. These features include, in the order he mentions[5] (cf. Opaschowski 1996: 122ff.):

- Quiet - the tourists want to relax and not have a hectic rush
- Sun - you need good weather to bathe in warm water and enjoy the sun
- Contrast - the travelers are looking for a counter-world to everyday life, the non-everyday
- Nature - on vacation you are looking for an idyllic landscape and untouched nature
- Freedom - you want to be spontaneous and independent and have free choice
- Contact - the tourists want to make social contacts
- Fun - you want to have fun on vacation
- Comfort - travelers need comfort; Comfort is a requirement these days
- Culture - cultural events are expected; Search for the pleasure of culture
- Activity - Tourists expect activities to be offered but do not take advantage of them
Freyer (2006: 73) presents the most common breakdown into five groups of travel motives in tourism research:
- physical and mental relaxation as well as rest
- Variety and physical balance
- Communication, contact and socializing needs
- Discovery and education (this also includes culture)
- Experience nature and enjoy the weather

Since culture is an important travel motif for my work, it deserves a closer look. After Opaschowski, interest in culture grew. It is precisely the staging of culture and the enjoyment of culture that attract many tourists (cf. Opaschowski 1996: 128). "Exhibitions and open-air concerts, festivals and local celebrations become highlights of the holiday experience." (ibid.)

Under differentiated holiday motivations, Gaworecki also mentions cultural reasons for wanting to get to know other countries and regions, the general interest in art and religious motives among pilgrims (cf. Gaworecki 2000: 21).

For example, Freyer sees city trips, active holidays and amusement parks as some of the new travel trends in tourism, in which, among other things, cultural offers are also gaining in importance (cf. Freyer 2006: 19):

"The travel-experienced guest of today's leisure company will in future place increased demands on the range of sports and cultural activities in the holiday areas. 'All-round entertainment', 'Holidays as a big event', 'Active holidays', 'Enjoying art and culture' could be the trends of the future be." (ibid .: 26)

Cultural vacationers and their expectations also presents from a practical point of view also more. This type of holidaymaker wants to discover and look at nature, beautiful landscapes or historical places, get to know culture in order to enrich himself internally. As an offer for cultural tourists, in addition to the options already mentioned, Furthermore, also recommends thematic travel routes, museums and exhibitions as well as short trips to the capitals of Europe with cultural stays (cf. Ferner 1995: 47). This cultural tourism will be defined in more detail below.

2.1.3 Cultural tourism in the city

According to Dreyer, culture can create an element of city trips. If it functions as a main motive for a city trip, according to Dreyer it can be assigned to the cultural tourism segment. The cultural offers and events also make the city attractive (cf. Dreyer 2000: 28f.). "The most important trend in cultural tourism concerns city trips. The demand for short trips with an event as a reason for travel is particularly high." (ibid .: 47)

Weber defines the artificial attractiveness factors as decisive for a city visit. According to him, art and culture, including sights, monuments and museums, are the main attractions for a tourist. In addition, the so-called events make a city a popular tourist destination (cf. Weber 2000: 54).

Since cultural elements are already permanently present in some types of tourism, including city trips, Gaworecki feels it is justified to use cultural tourism as a comprehensive term for culture-motivated travel (cf.Gaworecki 2000: 80).

2.2 Cultural tourism - definition of terms

According to Gaworecki, current tourism contains more and more culture. Cultural tourism in particular is developing rapidly and is becoming an important industry, which at the same time increases the consumption of culture (cf. Gaworecki 2003: 224). He tries to define the phenomenon of cultural tourism. In his opinion, cultural tourists visit cultural attractions, i.e. both cultural heritage and current cultural assets such as art, in order to gain new experiences or information (cf. ibid .: 222).

Opaschowski sees it similarly. Art and sights play a major role in a cultural holiday. The culture can be experienced more tangible, closer and more entertaining because, for example, one does not have to comply with cloakroom regulations (cf. Opaschowski 1996: 194).

Gaworecki also believes that cultural tourism can be seen as any type of tourism that includes cultural offers. In addition, however, he notes what can be seen from this statement that from this point of view almost every trip contains cultural elements and all types of tourism are related to culture (cf. Gaworecki 2003: 222).

A very broad perspective would even equate every type of tourism with culture, and Gaworecki also tends to believe that tourism mediates culture between the touristic starting and destination countries. In the course of time, culture can thus become a tourism culture, because tourism develops into a culture (cf. ibid.).

However, in my opinion, such generalizations and broad conclusions should be avoided.Of course, different types of tourism can include parts of cultural tourism, but equating culture and tourism would mean that one no longer has to do with cultural tourism, but with tourism culture. Such a way of thinking would, however, steer further analysis in a completely different direction. For example, Przecławski analyzes tourism as a cultural phenomenon and describes five types of relations between the two. According to Przecławski (1997: 32) tourism means:

- a cultural function - tourism serves as an expression of cultural identity
- a cultural element - tourism plays an important role in contemporary culture
- a cultural transmission - cultural values ​​can be conveyed in tourism
- a cultural encounter - tourism can contribute to cultural exchange[6]
- a culture change

However, I cannot go into this discussion in the context of the present work. It should only be mentioned that such a research field also exists. The remarks by Nahrstedt (2000: 20ff.) Can serve as a compilation of the complex term cultural tourism:

1. Culture trip - in this sense, Nahrstedt understands a trip that focuses on German history; Germany culture trip
2. Cultural tourism as culture-oriented travel - an umbrella term for a tourism segment that also includes educational and study trips
3. Culture in tourism - every form of tourism with cultural offers
4. Travel culture - tourism is part of world culture and creates a framework for intercultural communication between travelers and those who have traveled

In order to better understand the term cultural tourism, a brief definition of culture is necessary.

2.2.1 Culture definition

Etymologically, the word culture originally meant agriculture[7] and soil cultivation, but also care of the body and spiritual goods. From this a term developed which describes the "totality of the spiritual and artistic expressions of life" of a community or a people (cf. Duden 2001: 459). In today's cultural meaning one can still see the original idea of ​​the term if one understands by "culture the change in external and internal nature through work" (cf. Hansen 2000: 14).

The structure of the culture is very clear[8] Hansen vor and in my opinion one can use his understanding of culture in connection with cultural tourism. On the one hand, according to Hansen, the term culture can include artifacts, i.e. all products that people have created without pursuing a practical purpose. The work done should be creative and artistic, for example theater, literature, art or architecture, which together can be described as a cultural establishment. On the other hand, culture means a certain way of life, in other words: sophistication (cf. ibid .: 11f.).

According to Hansen, the third meaning includes the peculiarities and habits of a foreign people, whereby the first two cultural definitions are also included here. In this integrative sense, culture includes both the arts and sophistication. Compared to the first two, this way of understanding culture is value-neutral (cf. ibid .: 13) and is well suited as an explanation of culture in cultural tourism.

2.2.2 Relations between culture and tourism

According to Gaworecki, culture is closely intertwined with tourism. Tourism can enrich, protect and make known the culture, culture in turn helps to increase the tourist demand. Culture forms an important part of the tourist product and is increasingly becoming the motivation for a trip (cf. Gaworecki 2000: 79 and 2003: 221), which has led to cultural tourism becoming a recognized tourist industry today. Gaworecki believes that cultural tourism is enjoying a growing reputation and can therefore have an impact on the economic and social development of tourist locations (cf. Gaworecki 2003: 221).

He emphasizes that not only historical places and architectural sights are considered tourist attractions. Added to this is the tourists' interest in "high" and "popular" culture, as well as the need to get to know the true atmosphere and the way of life of the places visited. According to Gaworecki, cultural tourism means both reflection and communication tourism (cf. ibid.). Opinions also go in this direction when one thinks about the role of cultural tourism in intercultural communication.

Freyer presents both the positive and negative consequences of the influence of tourism on culture. On the one hand, according to him, tourism contributes to the preservation of cultural assets and the restoration of buildings, on the other hand it promotes cultural commercialization (cf. Freyer 2006: 383). One example could be handicrafts, where mass production displaces creative forms, but at the same time the artists are supported by higher income. A similar situation occurs with traditional dances. The tourist demand helps to maintain differentiated facilities such as museums, national parks or leisure and recreation centers (cf. ibid .: 486f.).

This is how Przecławski sees the situation. On the one hand, the regional culture develops through the tourist demand, folklore and folk art begins to be cultivated, regional museums and open-air museums are opened. On the other hand, however, regional culture can develop into an artificial, commercialized creation that loses its authentic values ​​(e.g. changed architecture, artistic groups) and is characterized by kitsch production (cf. Przecławski 1997: 89f.). Dreyer illustrates this using the example of cultural events, where the snack and beverage sector is displacing cultural offerings:

"Once brought into being to edify the locals and to maintain cultural idiosyncrasies, today many city festivals have been heavily commercialized. The economic advantages of such events have come to the fore, which often affects the cultural quality." (Dreyer 2000: 37)

Alejziak also points out the danger of commercialization, because the local culture is not only presented selectively and adapted to tourist needs, but also produced specifically for them (cf. Alejziak 1999: 170). Despite these dangers, one can consider whether tourism creates an opportunity for intercultural understanding.

2.3 Excursus: intercultural communication through tourism

According to Gaworecki, tourism helps to awaken individual interests and social needs by gaining access to cultural values, patterns and norms through tourism infrastructure and staff (e.g. tour guides, tourism organizations) (cf.Gaworecki 2000: 28 ). He sees cultural education as a function of tourism - conveying cultural values ​​to tourists and their surroundings (cf. ibid .: 356ff.). In my opinion, Gaworecki presents the role of cultural education in tourism too positively and pathetically (e.g. cf. ibid .: 207) without indicating the limits of the term "cultural education" and the possible problems. Only one sentence contains the note that one must not overlook the possible negative consequences of tourism (cf. ibid .: 208).

On the other hand, Maletzke is rather cautious about the phenomenon of intercultural communication in tourism[9]. He points out that the thesis about better communication opportunities through tourism is viewed rather critically nowadays. Reasons for this are, for example, that tourists travel to the foreign country with stereotypes and interpret events under their influence, have hardly any contact with people due to the language differences and only get to know the real environment to a limited extent (cf.Maletzke 1996: 10f.).

Alejziak is also skeptical about intercultural exchange. In his opinion, the tourists do not choose their sightseeing objects themselves, but follow general conventions. They are often so influenced by advertising and other marketing measures that they do not choose the most important things themselves, but are presented to them. The tourists often see what the tour operator believes they should see and form their opinion about the country on the basis of some attractions without knowing real life there (cf. Alejziak 1999: 43)

Freyer (2006: 490) concludes: "During a visit, the tourist usually only gets to know an illusory tourist world, but not the country." The package tourists only meet the residents to a limited extent and spend their holidays mostly in a certain isolation, referred to by Freyer as a holiday ghetto, where they do not have to adapt to the country. You tour everything in air-conditioned buses, watch folk performances and don't really get to know the world outside. In contrast, there are individual tourists (cf. ibid .: 489).

Przecławski similarly states that, in the end, the tourist only sees a fragment of the country visited and then his often incomplete one[10] The idea is building, with some tourists making the effort to delve deeper into the country and make contact with the locals[11] (see Przecławski 1997: 75). According to Przecławski, however, it is quite possible that there will be a cultural encounter in which the tourists get to know people with different customs, customs, values ​​and traditions and thereby gain experience that, despite differences, there are similarities (cf. ibid .: 100).

Traveling can certainly broaden our understanding of culture, as can be seen in the books by the famous Polish reporter Ryszard Kapuściński:

"Zawsze mówię moim studentom, którzy CHCA być dziennikarzami: podróżując starajcie się każdego dnia zapisywać fakty i wrażenia, nawet jeśli tego never wydrukujecie Zwyczaj robienia notatek zmusi what do koncentracji i aktywnego patrzenia, sprawi, że podróżowanie never będzie dla what mechanicznym przemieszczaniem oneself. zaliczaniem kilometrów, miast, krajów, ale stanie się formą zbliżenia i zrozumienia świata, innych ludzi, innych culture. "[12] (Kapuściński 2005: 252)

One should therefore probably find a balance and assume that some tourists use the opportunity of intercultural understanding, for example if they prepare for the encounter with the foreign before starting a trip and also show real interest in the foreign culture during the trip.


[1] Kroeber and Kluckhohn already listed 165 definitions in their book "Culture: A Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions" in 1952 (cf. Müller 1997: 24f.).

[2] Study from 1995.

[3] The groups agree in principle with the vacation expectations mentioned by Opaschowski.

[4] The information in an advertising text should be adapted to the recipient's motives (cf. Kroeber-Riel / Weinberg 2003: 622), so it is important to determine this.

[5] The vacation motives match the market segments.

[6] Or not, see point 2.2.3.

[7] In this sense, Hansen shows the fourth definition of culture, where culture means "the result of a cultivation and care activity" (Hansen 2000: 14).

[8] In order to better explain his compilation, Hansen (2000: 11) used the following slang sentences: 1. "Meier drives crazy in culture, he keeps running to the opera or the theater;" 2. "The Müllers have no culture, no way of life! They have all the achievements of civilization, but they are cultureless." 3. "Ms. Schulz travels a lot because she is interested in foreign cultures."

[9] Maletzke (1996) presents in his book a guide for getting along with and in a foreign culture.

[10] The idea of ​​the country is strongly influenced by the travel program and the organization of the stay (cf. Przecławski 197: 106).

[11] Like Przecławski, one could analyze the second side of the medal, i.e. what ideas the local residents have about the respective country from which the tourists come.

[12] "I always say to my students who want to become journalists: When you travel you should try to jot down facts and impressions every day, even if they are not printed. The habit of taking notes forces you to concentrate and actively look. has the effect that for you traveling does not become a mechanical change of places, a collecting of kilometers, cities, countries, but a form of rapprochement and understanding of the world, other people, other cultures. " (Translation by the author)

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