What are the types of missile canisters
MIM-104 Patriot - MIM-104 Patriot
The MIM-104 Patriot is a surface-to-air missile system (SAM), the primary of its kind, deployed by the U.S. Army and several allied nations. It is manufactured by the US defense company Raytheon and takes its name from the radar component of the weapon system. The AN / MPQ-53 at the heart of the system is known as the Phased Array Tracking Radar to Intercept on Target, a backronym for PATRIOT. The Patriot system replaced the Nike Hercules system as the US Army's primary HIMAD (High to Medium Air Defense) system and replaced the MIM-23 Hawk system as the US Army's medium tactical air defense system. In addition to these roles, Patriot has been given the role of the US Army's Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) system, which is now Patriot's primary role. The system is expected to remain in use until at least 2040.
Patriot uses an advanced air-interceptor missile and high-performance radar systems. Patriot was developed at Redstone Arsenal in Huntsville, Alabama, previously the Safeguard ABM system and its components Spartan and
Patriot systems were sent to the Netherlands, Poland,
The Patriot System was established during the 1991 Gulf War with claims deployed over 40 Iraqi Scud missiles, but these claims have become a source of controversy. The system was successfully used against Iraqi missiles in 2003 in the Iraq War and was also used by Saudi and Emirati armed forces in the Yemen conflict against Houthi missile attacks. The Patriot system scored its first undisputed kills of enemy aircraft in service with the Israeli Air Defense Command. Israeli MIM-104D batteries shot down two Hamas UAVs during Operation Protective Edge on August 31, 2014, and later, on September 23, 2014, an Israeli Patriot battery shot down a Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 that was in Israel had entered controlled airspace and scored the first kill of a manned enemy aircraft in the world for the system.
Prior to the Patriot, Raytheon was involved in a number of surface-to-air missile programs, including FABMDS (Field Army Ballistic Missile Defense System). , AADS-70 (Army Air-Defense System - 1970) and SAM-D (Surface-to-Air Missile - Development). In 1975, the SAM-D missile successfully deployed a drone in the White Sands Missile Range. In 1976 it was renamed the PATRIOT Air Defense Missile System. The MIM-104 Patriot would combine several new technologies, including the passive electronically scanned
The Patriot system has four main functions: communication, command and control, radar surveillance, and missile guidance. The four functions together form a coordinated, secure, integrated and mobile air defense system.
The Patriot system is modular and highly mobile. A battery-sized element can be installed in less than an hour. All components, consisting of the fire protection area (radar device, intrusion control station, antenna mast group, power station) and launchers, are mounted on trucks or trailers. The radar set and launchers (with missiles) are mounted on M860 semi-trailers made by Oshkosh M983 HEMTTs.
M985 HEMTT trucks are reloaded with a Hiab crane on the rear. This crane is larger than the standard Grove cranes used on regular M977 HEMTT and M985 HEMTT trucks. The truck / crane, known as the Guided Missile Transporter (GMT), removes used missile canisters from the launch vehicle and then replaces them with fresh missiles. Because the crane almost doubles the height of the HEMTT when it is not stowed, the crews informally refer to it as the "Scorpion Tail". A standard M977 HEMTT with a normal size crane is sometimes called an LRPT (Large Repair Parts Transporter).
The heart of the Patriot battery is the fire control department, consisting of the radar device AN / MPQ-53 or -65, the mission control station AN / MSQ-104 (ECS). , the antenna mast group OE-349 (AMG) and the power station EPP-III. The system's missiles are transported and fired from the M901 launch station, which can carry up to four PAC-2 missiles or up to sixteen PAC-3 missiles. A Patriot battalion is also equipped with the Information Coordination Central (ICC), a command station that coordinates the launch of a battalion, and Patriot with the JTIDS or MIDS
The radar device AN / MPQ-53 and AN / MPQ-65
The AN / MPQ-53/65 radar is equipped with a passive electronically scanned array with IFF, electronic countermeasures (ECCM) and track-via-missile (TVM) guidance systems. The AN / MPQ-53 radar set supports PAC-2 units, while the AN / MPQ-65 radar set supports PAC-2 and PAC-3 units. The main difference between these two radars is the addition of a second traveling wave tube (TWT) which gives the -65 radar enhanced search, detection and tracking capabilities. The radar antenna array consists of over 5,000 elements that "deflect" the radar beam many times per second. The radar antenna array also includes an IFF interrogation subsystem, a TVM array, and at least one sidelobe canceller (SLC), a small array designed to reduce interference that could affect the radar. Patriot's radar is somewhat unusual in that it is a "detection-to-kill" system, which means that a single unit performs all search, identification, tracking and intervention functions. This is in contrast to most SAM systems which require several different radars to perform all of the functions required to detect and attack targets.
The beam generated by the Patriot's flat phased array radar is comparatively narrow and very manoeuvrable compared to a moving dish. This property gives the radar the ability to detect small, fast targets such as ballistic missiles or targets with low radar cross-section such as stealth aircraft or cruise missiles. The Patriot radar's performance and agility are also extremely resistant to countermeasures including ECM, radar interference, and use of RWR equipment. Patriot is able to change frequencies quickly to avoid interference.
The AN / MSQ-104 Mission Control Station (ECS) is the nerve center of the Patriot ignition battery and costs approximately $ 6 million per unit. The ECS consists of a shelter mounted on the back of a 5 ton M927 truck or on the back of a Light Medium Tactical Vehicle (LMTV) truck. The main sub-components of the ECS are the Weapons Control Computer (WCC), the Data Link Terminal (DLT), the UHF communication array, the Routing Logic Radio Interface Unit (RLRIU) and the two man stations, which act as the human-machine interface of the System. The ECS is air-conditioned, pressurized (to withstand chemical / biological attack) and shielded from electromagnetic pulses (EMP) or other such electromagnetic interference. The ECS also contains several SINCGARS radios to facilitate voice communication.
The WCC is the main computer in the Patriot system. It is a parallel, militarized 24-bit computer with fixed and floating point capabilities. It is organized in a multiprocessor configuration that works with a maximum clock rate of 6 megahertz. This computer controls the user interface, calculates missile interception algorithms and offers limited fault diagnosis. Compared to modern PCs, the processing power is somewhat limited, although it has been updated several times during the life of Patriot.
The DLT connects the ECS with the Patriot launch stations. It uses either a SINCGARS radio or fiber optic cable to carry encrypted data between the ECS and the launch vehicles. System operators can use the DLT to remotely place, pivot or stow launch rockets, carry out diagnostics on launchers or rockets, and fire rockets.
The UHF communication array consists of three UHF radio stacks and the associated patch and encryption devices. These radios are connected to the antennas of the OE-349 Antenna Mast Group, which are used to create UHF "recordings" between sister Patriot batteries and the associated ICC. This creates a secure real-time data network (PADIL, Patriot Data Information Link) with which the ICC can centralize the control of its subordinate ignition batteries.
The RLRIU acts as the primary router for all data going into the ECS. The RLRIU gives a fire battery an address in the battalion data network and sends / receives data from the entire battalion. It also "translates" data from the WCC into the DLT, making communication with the launchers easier.
The Patriot occupation stations are referred to as man station 1 and 3 (MS1 and MS3). These are the stations where Patriot operators are connected to the system. The man stations consist of a monochrome (green and black) screen that is surrounded by various switching displays. Each manstation also has a conventional QWERTY keyboard and an isometric stick, a tiny joystick that works much like a PC mouse. The system is operated via these switching displays and the Patriot user interface software.
The Army is planning to upgrade the radar components of the Patriot system, including a new digital processor to replace the one used since the system was launched. In 2017, the Patriot will receive a new active electronically scanned array (AESA) radar with greater range and sharper discrimination. The Gallium Nitride (GaN) based AESA array measures 2.7 m by 4.0 m (9 feet by 13 feet), is a screw-on replacement antenna for the current antenna, and is aimed at the primary threat ;; New arrays on the back are a quarter the size of the main array and let the system look back and to the side for 360-degree coverage. The GaN AESA radar also has 50 percent lower maintenance costs. Instead of shining a single transmitter through many lenses, the GaN array uses many smaller transmitters, each with its own controller. This increases flexibility and allows you to work even if some broadcasters don't.
In October 2017, the Army announced that Raytheon's LTAMDS (Lower Tier Tier and Missile Defense System) radar has been selected as the Patriot system's new radar. Unlike the previous radar, which only allowed part of the sky to be observed at a time to detect mostly ballistic missiles, the LTAMDS has 360-degree coverage to detect low-flying and maneuvering drones and cruise missiles. The design has a large main array flanked by two smaller arrays, with the main panel still focusing on high-altitude threats and the side panels, which are half the size and twice the power of the previous radar set, can detect slower threats considerable distance. Raytheon won a $ 383 million contract to build the first six radars, which will enter service in 2022.
The antenna mast group OE-349
The antenna mast group OE-349 (AMG) is mounted on a 5-ton M927 truck. It contains four 4 kW antennas in two pairs on remote-controlled masts. The storage of the AMG must not be larger than a 0.5-degree roll and a 10-degree cross roll. The antennas can be steered in azimuth and the masts can be raised up to 30.76 m above the ground. Two high-performance amplifiers are attached to the base of each pair of antennas and are assigned to the antennas and radios in the shared shelter. It is through these antennas that the ECS and ICC send their respective UHF "recordings" to create the PADIL network. The polarity of each shot can be changed by placing the feed horn in a vertical or horizontal position. This allows for a greater likelihood that communications shots will achieve their intended destination when terrain obstacles could otherwise obscure the signal.
The EPP-III electric power plant
The diesel-electric power plant EPP-III (EPP) is the power source for the ECS and the radar. The EVP consists of two 150 kilowatt diesel engines with 3-phase generators at 400 Hertz, which are connected to one another via the power distribution unit. The generators are mounted on a modified M977 HEMTT. Each EVP has two 100 gallon fuel tanks and a fuel distribution assembly with grounding equipment. Any diesel engine can operate for more than eight hours with a full fuel tank. The EVP supplies its energy to the radar and the ECS via cables that are stored in rolls next to the generators. In addition, it supplies the AMG via a cable that runs through the ECS.
The start station M901
The M901 launch stations are remote-controlled, self-contained units. The ECS controls the operation of the launch vehicles via the DLT of each carrier via fiber optic or VHF data link (SINCGARS).
Integrated leveling devices enable installation on slopes of up to 10 degrees. Each launcher can be trained in azimuth and lifts into a fixed, elevated starting position. It is not necessary to precisely aim the launcher before starting. Thus, no additional delays are introduced into the system response time. Each launcher can also provide the ECS with a detailed diagnosis via the data link.
The launch station contains four major equipment subsystems: the launcher generator, launcher electronics module (LEM), launcher mechanical assembly (LMA), and launcher interconnection group (LIG). The generator consists of a 15 kW, 400 Hz generator that drives the launcher. The LEM is used for the real-time implementation of start-up processes that are requested from the ECS via a data link. The LMA physically erects and rotates the launcher's platform and its missiles. The LIG connects the missiles themselves to the launcher via the Launcher Missile Round Distributor (LMRD).
Patriot guided missile
|Pat riot missile|
Four Patriot missiles can be deployed from the highly mobile TEL
|Place of origin||United States|
|Unit cost||United States $ 1 million to $ 6 million|
|No. Will||over 8,600|
|influenced||Standard, ASOJ / SOJC, PAC-2, PAC-2 GEM, GEM / C, GEM / T- (or GEM +) and PAC-3|
|Dimensions||700 kg (1,500 lb)|
|length||5,800 mm (19 ft 0 in)|
|Warhead||M248 Miscellaneous B HE explosion / fragmentation with two layers of preformed fragments and Octol 75/25 HE explosion / fragmentation|
|Warhead weight||90 lb (90 kg)|
|span||920 mm (3 ft 0) in)|
|PAC-1: 70 km |
PAC-2: 96 km-160 km
PAC-3: 20 km against ballistic missile
PAC-3 MSE: 35 km against ballistic missile
|Altitude||24,200 m (79,500 feet)|
|Top speed||PAC-1: Mach 2.8 |
PAC-2 / PAC-3: Mach 4.1
|PAC-1: Radio command with Track Via Missile Semi Active Homing, PAC-3: Ka Band AESA viewfinder|
|Mobile trainable four-lap semi-trailer|
The first field variant was the MIM-104A "Standard". It was optimized for use against use and was only directed very much against the ballistic missiles. The MIM-104B is a missile designed to locate ECM and belong to issuers.
The PAC-2 missile MIM-104C was the first Patriot missile to be optimized for use with ballistic missiles. The GEM missile series (MIM-104D / E) is another refinement of the PAC-2 missile. The PAC-3 missile is a new interceptor with a certain radar seeker in the Ka-band, the "hit-to-kill" interception preservation, in the various of the target to explode and hear it with shrapnel). and some other concern that see lethality see ballistic missile suture. The information information for these different types of missiles is in the "Interests" section.
The first seven years of the PAC-2 conformation of its own missile per canister, four of which can be heard on a launcher. PAC-3 missile canister contains four missiles, so 16 rounds can be made on one launcher. The rocket container also serves as a shipping and storage container as well as a launch tube. Patriot missiles are referred to as "certified cartridges" when they leave the factory. Before the rocket is launched, there is no way to take care of it.
The PAC-2 rocket is 5.8 meters long, weighs about 900 kilograms and is taken from a solid rocket motor.
Patriot missile design
The PAC-2 family of missiles all have some standard design. They run out (front to back) the radome, guide section, warhead section, drive section, and control actuator section.
The radome consists of about 16.5 millimeters thick quartz glass with a tip made of nickel alloy and a fastening ring on a composite basis, which is cast with the quartz glass and consists of a given silicone rubber ring. The Radom Nord has an aerodynamic shape for the rocket and microwave window and a thermal protection for the RF seeker and electronic components.
The Patriot guidance section consists of the modular digital air flow system (MDAGS). The MDAGS consists of a modular midcourse package that includes all personal leadership functions from start to midcourse and a terminal guidance section. The TVM finder is a guide section located in the radome. The viewfinder consists of an antenna mounted on an inertial platform, antenna control electronics, a receiver and a sender. The modular midcourse package (MMP), which is available in the early part of the warhead closure, the execution of the navigation electronics and a rocket computer, the guidance and autopilot awareness and the steering commands belong to a resident computer program.
The warhead section, just behind the guide section, is responsible for the near fused warhead, safety and arming device, ignition circuits and antennas, connecting antenna circuits, auxiliary electronics, inertia sensor assembly and signal data converter.
The drive section consists of the rocket motor, a specific heat shield and two conductive lines. The rocket motor includes the housing, nozzle assembly, propellant, liner and insulation, pyrogenic detonator, and propulsion and ignition unit. The motor housing is an integral structural element of the missile cell. There is a sensory, drop-bound solid rocket propellant.
The Control Actuator Section (CAS) is at the end of the missile. It receives commands from the missile autopilot and positions the fins. The rocket fins steer and stabilize the rocket in flight. A fin servo system positions the fins. The lamellar servo system consists of hydraulic actuators and valves as well as an electro-hydraulic power supply. The electro-hydraulic power consists of a battery, a motor pump, an oil container, a gas cylinder and a pressure accumulator.
Patriot was received with a specific missile type loss: the MIM-104A. This was the first "Standard" rocket (still known today as the "Standard"). In the early days of Patriot, the system was done away with as an anti-aircraft weapon without any anti-ballistic missile function. This was in the last few years when Patriot received its first person system overhaul with the introduction of the Patriot Advanced Capability rocket and system upgrades.
Patriot Advanced Capability (PAC-1), now known as the PAC-1 upgrade, was a pure software upgrade. The most important aspects of this upgrade were the rights of the art and way of how the radar belongs and how the system should be, how it should be. Lots of searching deep to the horizon, the rendering of the search angle of the radar has been raised from the correct angle of 25 degrees based on vertical (89 degrees). This happens as the opposite of the steep parabolic trajectory experienced by ballistic missiles. The radar search beams were bought, and in the "TBM search mode" the "lightning" or the right with which these beams were heard was heard. Although this increases the ability of the radar to detect interference by ballistic missiles, the perception of the system of the perception of the systems of the perception of the radar system and the number of "lightning bolts" on the horizon. For this reason, it was important to lose the search function for traditional atmospheric viewing in a separate search program to be taken over by the operator to prevent it from being possible. As it is said, how Patriot set goals. Used as a system to defend a significant area from enemy air attacks, many more "point" targets are now heard which are different from the system's TBM "footprint". The footprint is the area on the ground that the Patriot can use against the ballistics missiles.
Over the years, Patriot has been reviewed in a relatively subdued way, for software. At the meaningful war, a sentimental upgrade was made to improve and intercept artillery missiles in the sense of the multiple missile launcher, which North Korea became as well important rights. This feature was not used in combat and was handled from USA. Army patriot systems, too, it remains in South Korean episodes. Another upgrade to the system was the introduction of a different type of missile called the MIM-104B, which the Army called the Anti-Stand-Off Jammer (ASOJ). This variant is intended to help Patriot to stop and control ECM aircraft at a distance. It is possible, like an anti-radiation missile, as it flies a high trajectory and then locates houses in and the significant emitter belongs in a designated area from the capable.
In the years that followed, tests were conducted that while the Patriot was able to intercept the ballistics missiles, it was also questionable whether the MIM or not -104A / B missiles were able to be heard. This means the introduction of the PAC-2 missile and system upgrade is required.
For the system, the PAC-2 upgrade was the PAC-1 upgrade. Radar search algorithms were further optimized and the beam protocol of the "TBM search" was further modified. In PAC-2, with the introduction of the MIM-104C or PAC-2 missile, Patriots also became initial missile upgrade settings. This missile has been optimized for ballistic missile missions. Substantial changes and the PAC-2 missile were optimized for the high in the Peng-Kopfler with explosion fragmentation and the timing of the pulse Doppler radar security for high-speed operations (although the old old one was claims for action operations when needed). The deployment procedure has also been optimized and the system's fire method for attacking ballistic missile movements. If two missiles are to be fired in a rapid simultaneous salvo, a short right between 3 and 4 seconds has been added so that the second missile fired belongs to the first ballistic missile warhead after the explosion.
PAC-2 was tested in 1987 and protected in 1990 Army units, ready for use in the Middle East for the Gulf War. There Patriotsicht was recognized as a successful ABM system and as proof that ballistic missile defense was a possible war. The partial study of their incapacity remains classified.
MIM-104D (PAC-2 / GEM)
There were many more upgrades to PAC-2 systems in the 1990s and 21st century. The PAC-2 missiles were better than Guided missile (GEM) .
known. The main upgrade to the GEM missile was a new, faster fused warhead. Tests had held that the detonating cord of the PAC-2 missiles gave their warheads too late to detonate when ballistic missiles with an extremely steep penetration were offered. It was therefore important to shorten this ignition delay. The GEM missile, which has a new seeker head with "working noise", "The interference for the missile's radar seeker," Target "and" Seeker with the power "," The one "" radar cross section "has 96> targets. The GEM was used extensively in Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF), which was very successful in air defense.
Shortly before the OIF, it was decided to further improve the GEM and the PAC-2 missiles. This upgrade program works missiles, known as GEM / T and GEM / C, include the designation "T" for "TBM" and the designation "C" for cruise missiles. These missiles have been given a nosepiece other than a new new nose section to be against targets with an altitude and an RCS like cruise missiles. Many of the GEM / T have a new fuse that has been further optimized against ballistic missiles. The GEM / C is the updated version of the GEM and the GEM / T is the updated version of the PAC-2. The GEM + entered service in 2002, and the US Army has upgraded its PAC-2 and GEM missiles to the GEM / C or GEM / T standard.
The PAC-3 upgrade is a major upgrade for the little one in every aspect of the system. It took place in three phases, deployed in 1995, 1996, and 2000, and the units were named Configuration 1, 2, or 3.
The system itself was again upgraded to the WCC and software, and the communications setup was completely redesigned. With this upgrade, PAC-3 operators can now view, transmit, and receive tracks on the Link 16 Command and Control (C2) network using a Class 2M terminal or MIDS LVT radio. This ability greatly increases the situational awareness of Patriot crews and other participants on the Link 16 network who can receive the local Patriot aerial photo. The software can now perform a bespoke TBM search to optimize radar resources for searching a specific sector known to have ballistic missile activity, and it can also support a "hold height" to hold ballistic missiles with chemical warheads or submunition
The PAC-3 upgrade brought with it a new missile design, known nominally as the MIM-104F, which the Army calls the PAC-3. The PAC-3 missile was developed from the ERINT missile of the Strategic Defense Initiative and is therefore almost exclusively dedicated to the mission of ballistic missiles. Due to miniaturization, a single canister can hold four PAC-3 missiles (as opposed to one PAC-2 missile per canister). The PAC-3 missile is also more maneuverable than previous variants, due to the fact that 180 tiny solid rocket motors (Attitude Control Motors or ACMs) are mounted in the front body of the missile, which are used to fine-tune the trajectory of the missile towards the target Hit-to-Kill- Achieve ability. However, the most significant upgrade to the PAC-3 missile is the addition of an active K.aBand radar seeker. This allows the missile to disconnect its uplink from the system and lock onto its target even in the final stages of its interception, improving the missile's response time against a fast moving ballistic missile target. The PAC-3 missile is accurate enough to select, aim, and hit the warhead portion of an incoming ballistic missile. The active radar also gives the warhead the "hit to kill" (kinetic killing vehicle) capability, completely eliminating the need for a traditional close-range fusion warhead. However, the missile still has a small warhead called Lethality Enhancer, a warhead that fires 24 fragments of tungsten at low speed in a radial direction to enlarge the missile's cross-section and increase the likelihood of killing. This significantly increases the lethality against ballistic missiles of all types.
The PAC-3 upgrade effectively quintupled the "footprint" a Patriot unit can defend against ballistic missiles of all types and greatly increased the lethality and effectiveness of the system against ballistic missiles. It has also increased the range of ballistic missiles that Patriot can attack, which now include several intermediate areas. Despite its increasing ballistic missile defense capability, the PAC-3 missile is a less capable interceptor for atmospheric aircraft and air-to-surface missiles. It's slower, has a shorter range, and has a smaller warhead compared to older Patriot missiles.
The Patriot PAC-3 interceptor is the primary interceptor for the new MEADS system. On November 29, 2012, MEADS is scheduled to discover, track, intercept and destroy an air-breathing target in its first intercept test at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico.
Lockheed Martin Missiles and Fire Control is the prime contractor for the upgrade of the PAC-3 missile segment to the Patriot air defense system, which makes the missile more agile and extends its range by up to 50%. The upgrade of the PAC-3 missile segment consists of the PAC-3 missile, a very agile interceptor, the PAC-3 missile canisters (in four packs), a computer with fire solution and an Enhanced Launcher Electronics System (ELES). The MSE (PAC-3 Missile Segment Enhancement) interceptor increases altitude and range with a more powerful double-pulse motor for extra thrust, larger fins that collapse in current launchers, and other structural modifications for greater agility. The US Army accepted the first PAC-3 MSE interceptors on October 6, 2015, and initial operational capability (IOC) was declared in August 2016. The PAC-3-MSE is capable of long-range ballistic missile guided missile cruisers or in a USAF AWACS aircraft. A Patriot Operator (called "ADAFCO" or "Air Defense Artillery Fire Control Officer") is partnered with the RADC / SADC to facilitate communication with the Patriot battalions.
The following describes the process by which a PAC-3 primer battery attacks a single tactical ballistic missile with two PAC-3 missiles:
- A missile is detected by the AN / MPQ -65 radar. The radar checks the speed, altitude, behavior and radar cross-section of the target. If this data matches the discriminatory parameters established in the system, the missile will appear on the operator's screen as a target for ballistic missiles.
- In the AN / MSQ-104 Engagement Control Station, the TCO checks the speed, altitude and trajectory of the route and then authorizes the engagement. Once the engagement is authorized, the TCO instructs its TCA to move the system's launch vehicles from standby mode to operational mode. The intervention takes place automatically at the moment when the computer defines the parameters that guarantee the highest probability of death.
- The system computer determines which of the launch vehicles have the highest probability of being killed and selects them for firing. Two missiles are fired 4.2 seconds apart in a "ripple" pattern.
- The AN / MPQ-65 radar continues to track the target and upload interception information to the PAC-3 missiles, which are now going out to be intercepted.
- When it reaches its end homing phase, the active radar seeker of the Ka-band in the nose of the PAC-3 missile detects the incoming ballistic missile. This radar selects the radar return that is most likely the warhead of the incoming missile and directs the interceptor towards it.
- The PAC-3 rocket fire's ACMs (attitude control motors) precisely aim the rocket at the interceptor track.
- The interceptor flies directly through the warhead of the incoming ballistic missile, detonating it and destroying the missile.
- The second missile locates any debris that can be a warhead and attacks in a similar fashion.
Gulf War (1991)
Before the First Gulf War, ballistic missile defense in war was an unproven concept. During Operation Desert Storm, in addition to its anti-aircraft mission, Patriot was hired to shoot down incoming Iraqi Scud or Al Hussein short-range ballistic missiles launched in Israel and Saudi Arabia. Patriot's first combat mission was on January 18, 1991 when a later computer glitch occurred. Indeed, no Scuds were fired in Saudi Arabia on January 18. This incident has been widely misreported as the first successful enemy ballistic missile interception in history.
During the war, Patriot missiles attempted to deploy over 40 enemy ballistic missiles. The success of these engagements, and in particular how many of them were real goals, is still controversial.Post-war video analysis of suspected interceptions by MIT professor Theodore Postol suggests that no Scud was actually hit. That analysis is contested by Peter D. Zimmerman, who claimed that photos of the hull of SCUD missiles shot down in Saudi Arabia showed that the SCUD missiles were fired at Saudi Arabia and were interspersed with fragments of the lethality booster from Patriot Missiles.
Failure in Dhahran
On February 25, 1991, an Iraqi scud hit the barracks in Dhahran, Saudi Arabia, killing 28 soldiers from the US Army's 14th Quartermaster Division.
A government investigation revealed that the failed interception in Dhahran was caused by a software bug in the system's handling of time stamps. The Patriot missile battery in Dhahran had been in operation for 100 hours. At this point the internal clock of the system was shifted by a third of a second. Due to the speed of the missile, this corresponded to an incorrect distance of 600 meters.
The radar system had successfully identified the Scud and predicted where to look next. However, the time stamps of the two compared radar pulses were converted to floating point differently: one correct, the other led to an error that was proportional to the previous operating time (100 hours) and was caused by the truncation in a 24-bit fixed point register. As a result, the difference between the pulses was wrong, so that the system looked into the wrong part of the sky and couldn't find a target. With no target, the initial detection was assumed to be a false trail and the missile was removed from the system. No interception was attempted and the Scud hit a makeshift barracks in a warehouse at Al Khobar 96 in the 28 soldiers, the first Americans to get from the Scuds Iraq had against Saudi Arabia and Israel.
Two times a week, on February 11, 1991, the Israelis had lost the problem and owned the US Army and the PATRIOT project office, the software manufacturer. As a stopgap measure, the Israelis had heard the system computer was restarting. The purchase belongs to the Army on February 26th with updated software.
Responsible war The MIM-104 system in the Nurrungar Joint Defense Facility in Australia failed, resulting in a possible war with the perception of signals
Success rate vs.>
On February 15, 1991, President George HW Bush removed to Raytheon's Patriot manufacturing facility in Andover, Massachusetts, leading the Gulf War: "The Patriot is engaged 41 for 42:42 Scuds, 41 intercepted!" in war over 97%.
On April 7, 1992, Theodore Postol of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Reuven Pedatzur of Tel Aviv University before a guidelines
Also on April 7, 1992, Charles A. Zraket of Harvard Kennedy School of Government and Peter D. Zimmerman of the Center for Strategic and International Studies testified about controlling success rates and rights in Israel and Saudi Arabia and discounted many of the ratings and methods in Postol's report.
According to Zimmerman, it is important to understand the difference in performance when analyzing the performance of considering the system adoption of war:
- Success rate of Scuds, performance or distracted in uninhabited regional
- Heard - the loss of hits from All Fired Patriots
The standard fire doctrine was heard after four patriots for every arriving Scud - in Saudi Arabia after three patriots were fired. The large number of missiles fired is heard as a result of low reliance on the individual missiles and a certain rate. If a Patriot has a different personal rate of 50%, two missiles will intercept 75% of the time and three 87.5% of the time. Only one has to hit to successfully intercept, but that doesn't mean the other missiles don't belong.
Also the Iraqi redesign of the Scuds a role. Iraq had bought its scuds new, making up for the weight of the warhead to move and move. Those in charge who had the rights and the rights of flight unstable were part of the fact that they were the Scud's own descent from nearby space
Looking up at Zraket, there was a lack of related photographic equipment to record the interception of targets turned into war. As a result, the Patriot crews recorded each launch on standard definition videotape, which was insufficient for public analysis. Damage recovery storms that were found on the ground were scud debris on video, and the crater analysis was then used to determine whether the warhead was up before the debris or not. One reason for the 30% improvement in the success rate in Saudi Arabia compared to Israel is because the Patriot is pushing the incoming Scud missiles away from control targets in the desert, or the warhead of Scud-able behavior, whichever belongs. In Israel the Scuds die directly on cities and were civil rights. The Saudi government also censored any reporting of Scud damage by the Saudi press. The Israeli government has not practiced the same art of censorship. The status of patriot in Israel was taken over by the IDF. The IDF counted any Scud that exploded on the ground as a failure for the Patriot. In Saudi Arabia, the US Army, the number of patriots in Saudi Arabia.
Both heard say that part of the problem belongs to the old design as an air defense system. Patriot was designed with local detonation explosive devices designed to explode immediately before hitting a target, it compensates for splinters in a fan for the missile to spray out and the target is safe or decided. These missiles were fired at the target's center of mass. In the case of aircraft the war dies fine, but also in the nose of the traffic and the position of the warhead in the nose of the traffic circle in the nose of the spray head, warhead, the warhead of the TBM is not checked and has fallen to the ground.
In response to the personal and security of the house government: "The Patriot missile system was not the spectacular success in the Gulf War" 237 rights, the evidence that the Patriot had more than a pair of Scud missile surveillance hats, the Iraq conflict of the Gulf War has fired and there are some doubts about those engagements. The United States public and Congress has been ruled by the success of the Raytheon state and government and has been misled after the war. "The administrative film
A fifth estate makes the Israeli administration minister of the Israeli government war so dissatisfied with the performance of the missile defense that they prepared their own personal retaliatory measures against Iraq by the objections of the USA. That answer was only annulled with the armistice with Iraq.
Operation Iraqi Freedom (2003)
Patriot was deployed to Iraq again in 2003 to provide air and missile defense (OIF) to the disputes that will die for Operation Iraqi Freedom. Patriot PAC-3, GEM and GEM + missiles both had very high success rates and intercepted Al-Samoud 2 and Ababil-100 tactical ballistic missiles. This is one such conflict. The systems were stationed in Kuwait and Iraq and monitored a range of enemy surface-to-surface missiles using the new PAC-3 and enhanced guided missiles. Patriot missile batteries were three friendly fire incident claims that resulted in the downing of a Royal Air Force tornado and the deaths of both crew members, Flight Lieutenant Kevin Barry Main and Flight Lieutenant David Rhys Williams (Navigator) / WSO), March 23, 2003. On March 24, 2003 A USAF F-16CJ Fighting Falcon fired a HARM anti-radiation missile at a Patriot missile battery after the Patriot's radar fired at the aircraft and prepared to fire at the aircraft, causing the pilot to fire it up with an Iraqi one Confuse surface-to-air missile system. The HARM missed its target and no one was injured; The Patriot Radar was examined and continued to operate, but was replaced as a fragment may have penetrated the radar and remained undetected. On April 2, 2003, two PAC-3 missiles shot down a USN F / A-18 Hornet, killing US Navy Lieutenant Nathan D. White of VFA-195, Carrier Air Wing Five.
Service with Israel
The Israeli Air Defense Command operates MIM- 104D Patriot (PAC-2 / GEM +) Batteries with Israeli upgrades. The name Israel Defense Forces for the Patriot weapon system is "Yahalom "(Hebrew: יהלום, diamond).
Operation Protective Edge (2014)
During Operation Protective Edge, Patriot batteries of the Israeli Air Defense Command intercepted and destroyed two unmanned aerial vehicles launched by Hamas. The interception of a Hamas drone on July 14, 2014 marked the first time in the history of the use of the Patriot system that it successfully intercepted an enemy aircraft.
Syrian Civil War (2014–)
On August 31, 2014, an unmanned Syrian aircraft was shot down by an Israeli Air Defense Command MIM-104D Patriot missile near Quneitra after entering Israeli-controlled airspace over the Israeli-occupied Golan Heights. Almost a month later, on September 23, a Syrian Air Force Sukhoi Su-24 was shot down under similar circumstances.
On July 17, 2016, two Israelis Patriot missiles missed a drone fired from Syria. The Israeli Air Defense Command fired two Patriot missiles but failed to destroy the target. Russia Today said the drone entered Israeli airspace four kilometers and flew back to Syria.
On April 27, 2017, another Syrian UAV was shot down by an Israeli Patriot battery that fired two missiles against the target. On September 19, 2017, a Hezbollah intelligence drone was shot down while attempting to infiltrate Israel through the Golan border.
On June 24, 2018, a single Israeli Patriot missile was fired at a drone that was approaching Israel from Syria. The missile missed its target. The drone turned back to Syria.
In a similar incident, on the afternoon of July 11, 2018, an Israeli Patriot missile shot down a drone approaching Israel from Syria.
In a few days, on the afternoon of July 13, 2018, an Israeli Patriot missile shot down a drone that was approaching Israel from Syria.
On July 24, 2018, an Israeli patriot shot a Syrian Sukhoi
Service with Saudi Arabia
On June 6, 2015, a Patriot battery was used to shoot down a launched Scud missile in Saudi Arabia by Houthi rebels in response to the Saudi-led intervention in Yemen. Another scud was fired at a power station in Jizan Province and intercepted by a Saudi patriot on August 26, 2015.
Saudi Arabia claims another long-range ballistic missile was on
On March 25, 2018, another missile, apparently fired from Yemen, was intercepted by a Patriot missile over Riyadh. However, missile experts via news outlets question the effectiveness of the defense of the Saudi Arabian patriots, according to the videos. One interceptor explodes shortly after takeoff and another makes a U-turn in the air towards Riyadh.
On September 14, 2019, Saudi Arabia's six battalions of Patriot missile defense systems failed to protect their oil facilities from attack.
On May 7, 2020, the United States removed two of its four Patriot anti-missile batteries from Saudi Arabia, which were securing its oil fields after tensions with Iran eased. Instead, the batteries are to be replaced with Saudi's own Patriot batteries.
Service to the United Arab Emirates
According to Brigadier General Murad Turaiq, the commander of some of the Yemeni armed forces allied with the United States, the Saudi Arabia-led coalition currently fighting in Yemen. Patriotic air defense systems deployed by the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in Yemen have successfully intercepted two ballistic missiles fired by Houthi forces. General Turaiq told Abu Dhabi-based The National newspaper on Nov. 14 that the first missile was shot down in the region late the day before and a second was intercepted before hitting the building where the armed forces control center was located in operation the provinces of Marib and Al-Baydah. Airbus defense and space satellite images captured by IHS Jane showed two Patriot fire units, each with only two launch vehicles, deployed on the Safir runway in Marib province in October 1.
and potential operators in purple.
- Air Defense Missile Training Unit (ADMTU) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 1st Air Defense Missile Group (1st ADMG) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 2nd Air Defense Missile Group (2nd ADMG) (PAC -2 & PAC-3)
- 3rd Air Defense Missile Group (3rd ADMG) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 4th Air Defense Missile Group (4th ADMG) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 5th Air Defense Missile Group (5th ADMG) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 6th Air Defense Missile Group (6th ADMG) (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- Saudi Arabia
- Taiwan (Republic of China)
- South Korea
- Republic of Korea Air Force (PAC-2 & PAC-3)
- 1st Air Defense Artillery Brigade (1st ADAB)
- 2nd Air Defense Artillery Brigade (2nd ADAB)
- 3rd Air Defense Artillery Brigade (3rd ADAB)
- United Arab Emirates
- United States
- United States Army
- 11th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (11th ADAB)
- 31st Air Defense Artillery Brigade (31st ADAB)
- 69th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (69th ADAB)
- 108th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (108th A. DAB)
- 35th Air Defense Artillery Brigade (35th ADAB), 8th Army
- (5th-7th ADAR)
- 3rd Battalion, 6th Air Defense Artillery Regiment (3rd-6th ADAR)
(القوة الجوية الكويتية)
In August 2010, the US Defense Security Cooperation Agency announced that Kuwait had formally applied for the purchase of 209 MIM-104E PAC-2 missiles. In August 2012, Kuwait purchased 60 MAC-104F PAC-3 missiles, as well as four radars and 20 launch vehicles.
JAF operates three or four Patriot missile batteries acquired from Germany. The batteries are in operation.
2014 The United Arab Emirates signed a contract (nearly $ 4 billion) with Lockheed Martin and Raytheon to purchase and operate the latest development of the PAC-3 system, as well as 288 Lockheed PAC-3 missiles and 216 GEM-Ts Missiles completed. The agreement is part of the development of a national defense system to protect the Emirates from air threats. In 2019, the United Arab Emirates Armed Forces purchased 452 Patriot Advanced Capability 3 (PAC-3) Missiles Segment Enhanced (MSE) and associated equipment for an estimated cost of $ 2.728 billion.
Serves in the Emiri Air Force in Qatar (القوات الجوية الأميرية القطرية)
In November 2012, the export of 246 MIM-104E GEM-T and 786 PAC-3 missiles and related equipment from the United States was announced. Declared operational in November 2018.
The Romanian Air Force received its first system of Patriot surface-to-air missiles on Thursday, September 17, 2020. The Romanian government signed an agreement on November 29, 2017 to purchase seven Patriot Configuration 3 units with radar, control station, antennas and Start stations and power plants.  Also included are 56 Patriot MIM-104E Guidance Enhanced Missile TBM (GEM-T) missiles and 168 Patriot Advanced Capability - 3 Missile Segment Enhancement missiles. The sale could be valued at up to $ 3.9 billion, according to the Defense Security Cooperation Agency. Romania is the 14th Patriot customer worldwide and one of the two former Warsaw Pact states to have received one.
The US Army operates a total of 1,106 Patriot launch vehicles. In 2010, in actual service from 483.
In November 2017, the US State Department approved the sale of four Patriot missile defense systems to Poland for a value of $ 10.5 billion. However, the high cost of the systems has raised some concerns in Poland. In February 2018, the Polish Defense Minister Mariusz Błaszczak announced on Twitter that a reduced price had been negotiated for the system. On March 28, 2018, the Department of Defense signed a contract for two Patriot Configuration 3+ batteries valued at $ 4.75 billion for deliveries in 2022. The purchase includes Northrop Grumman's IBCS Battle Command System and four fire units, the are equipped with four AN / MPQ-65 radars, 16 launchers, four mission control stations, six mission operations centers, 12 IFCN relays and 208 PAC-3 MSE missiles. In Phase II, Poland plans to order six more batteries equipped with AESA radar and Raytheon's SkyCeptor interceptors.
Sweden decided to request a bid for the Patriot system in November 2017 and August in 2018, an agreement was signed for 4 units and 12 launchers to form 2 battalions. The total cost would be around SEK 10 billion and the system known as Luftvärnssystem 103 in the Swedish service would be delivered in 2021 and 2022. The first Swedish troops continued to train the system at Fort Sill in December 2018.
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