What is the Tibetan government in exile

Since his youth it has been a dream of His Holiness the 14th Dalai Lama to give his people democracy. Even before the Tibetan popular uprising of 1959, which was violently suppressed by the Chinese and in the course of which 80,000 Tibetans had to look into exile, His Holiness proposed several reforms in Tibet.

These aimed at the introduction of a democratic system in Tibet. However, its implementation was prevented by the Chinese occupying forces. Shortly after H.H. the Dalai Lama's arrival in India, the Tibetan government in exile was established. This was based on the modern democratic system with a clear separation of powers, consisting of the three organs judicial, legislative and executive.

The Kashag, or Council of Ministers, is the highest executive body. The different ministries are divided into: the Ministry of Interior responsible for education, upbringing, health, religious affairs and security, the ministry of finance and Ida's ministry of international relations.

The individual ministers in Kashag are elected by the full assembly of the parliament in exile (ATPD).

The Assembly of the Tibetan Peoples Deputy, ATPD for short, is the legislative body of the Tibetan government in exile and forms the parliament in exile. Among other things, it drafted and adopted the Charter of Tibetans in Exile, the Basic Law. The members of this parliament are directly elected by the eligible voters on the Indian sub-continent as well as the Tibetan people living in western countries.

The Tibetan Supreme Justice Commission is the highest judicial organ and is also the guardian of the constitution in exile. The Justice Commission also deals with lawsuits against the administration and assists the plaintiffs with their rights.

In 1963, from the headquarters of the government-in-exile in Dharamsala, H. H. the Dalai Lama proclaimed a democratic constitution for a future free Tibet. This paved the way for the development of one of the youngest democracies in the world.

Today over 130,000 Tibetans live in exile and a large number of them are housed in settlements in India and Nepal. Outside the Indian subcontinent, the largest Tibetan colony has lived in Switzerland since the early 1960s and in North America since the early 1990s. Over the past 40 years, the Tibetans have made great efforts to maintain and promote their religious and cultural institutions, which are a very important part of maintaining the Tibetan identity.Source: CTA

The Supreme Court is the highest judicial authority. Since the exile situation does not allow a real supreme court with judicial power, the supreme court is responsible for the mediation of internal affairs within the Tibetan exile community and the exile administration in the sense of the duties of an ombudsman.

The chief judge is appointed by the Dalai Lama and has to be approved by a two-thirds majority of all members of parliament. To assist in the judicial proceedings there are three jurors who are appointed by the chief judge after consultation with the Council of Ministers.