Why is inorganic chemistry an exception
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Area of Expertise - chemistry
The term organic chemistry was coined around 1806 by J. Berzelius, but was initially limited to those compounds that are built up by living organisms. The assumption that organic compounds cannot be produced artificially was refuted in 1828 by F. Wöhler: He succeeded for the first time in the laboratory in converting ammonium cyanate, a typical inorganic salt, by heating it into urea, a typical endogenous, i.e. organic compound.
Today organic chemistry, which is also known as the "chemistry of carbon compounds", is the branch of chemistry that in principle includes all compounds of carbon. Exceptions are hydrogen-free chalcogenides, i.e. compounds between carbon and the elements of the 16th group of the periodic table such as carbon monoxide,, carbon dioxide,, carbon disulfide, or their derivatives, e.g. carbonic acid. The salt-like and metallic carbides and metal carbonyls, which are also part of inorganic chemistry, are also excluded.
The main goal of organic-chemical research is the development of processes for the synthesis of known and novel organic compounds, the investigation of their structure and their reactions.
About 90% of the organic compounds consist of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen in varying proportions. Most of the rest also contain the elements nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus or halogens (heteroatoms). In principle, however, every element can be incorporated into an organic compound (organometallic compounds, organometallic compounds).
The total number of currently known organic compounds is well over 15 million. This diversity is due to the special ability of carbon to form chain or ring-shaped molecules of different sizes through covalent bonds with other carbon atoms. In addition, there is the possibility of forming single, double and triple bonds between two carbon atoms, which increases the number of structurally different compounds as well as the presence of certain functional groups including the heteroatoms. Ultimately, the different variants of the three-dimensional structure of organic molecules also result in further specifications (stereochemistry).
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