What is special about the Gujarati language

Gujarati

Gujarati (Gujarati: ગુજરાતી gujarātī f.) a North Indian New Indian language, one of the official national languages ​​of the Republic of India (Bharat Ganarajya); a script common in Gujarat; a resident of Gujarat.

The Gujarati language

Together with Hindi, Marathi and Bengali, Gujarati belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It developed from Sanskrit via the Middle Indian languages ​​Prakrit and Apabhramsha or Gaujara Apabhramsha.

Gurajarti is one of the 22 official languages ​​and 14 regional languages ​​of India. Gurajati comes from the Indian state Gurajat and is also spoken in Gurajat as well as in the union areas Damen and Diu and Dadra as well as in Nagar Haveli. It is also the language of the large Gujarati community in Mumbai.

There are approximately 46 million speakers of Gujarati worldwide, making it the 23rd most widely spoken language in the world. 45.5 million Gujarati speakers live in India, 150,000 in Uganda, 250,000 in Tanzania, 50,000 in Kenza and about 100,000 in Pakistan. A sizable population of Gujarati speakers exists in North America as well as in the United Kingdom. Gujarati was the first language of Mohandas K. Gandhi, the "father of India", Mohammed Ali Jinnah, the "father of Pakistan" and Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, "the iron man of India".

History of the Gujarati language

In contrast to most of the other Indian languages, Gujarati is considered to be a young language whose roots can be traced back well into the 12th century AD. A formal grammar of the forerunner of this language was written by the Jain monk and eminent scholar Hemachandracharya in the reign of Rajput King Siddharaj Jayasinh of Anhilware (Patan). This was called Apabhramsha grammar, which translated means a "corrupt" form of the formal language of the time, Sanskrit and Ardhamagadhi Prakrit.

The earliest literature in the language survives orally and can be traced back to the Krishna follower and great egalitarian Narsi Mehta. The story of Narsi Mehta himself was written in the 17th century as a long narrative poem by Premananda. He was given the title of Mahakavi or "great poet" by modern historians of history.

Premandanda was a vyakhyankar, or wandering storyteller, who told his subject in a song and along the prose lines. His style was so fluid that his long poems, which stretched in hundreds of rows, are remembered by people despite everything and are still sung today. In this sense, the oral tradition of the ancient Vedas continued for a long time.

During the medieval era of Gujarat history, poetry was used to express divine feelings. The first work of poetry in Gujarati is considered "Bharateswara Bahubali Rasa", composed by Shalibhadrasuri, a 7th century monk. A number of Jain sadhus followed his example and composed short story tales called "rasas" until the late 18th century AD.

After the relatively significant rise of Mahatma Gandhi in an ever-increasing struggle for independence and social equality, a large amount of poetry, written by writers such as Umashankar, Sundaram, Shesh, Snehrasmi, and Betai, focused, among other things, on the existing social order, the struggle for independence and the labors of Mahatma Gandhi himself. Post-independence poetry shows a higher form of subjectivity and explores novel philosophy and lines of thought and images.

Dialects

As with most languages, Gujarati occurs in various regional dialects that differ in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. Some dialects have Arabic and Persian influences, while others, like the southern dialects, have been borrowed more from Portuguese and English. Others, in turn, adopt more of the Hindi. It is not a single language and was only created 4 to 5 centuries ago.

Speaker and diffusion

In 2002 Gujarati had around 45 million native speakers. It is spoken mainly in the Indian state of Gujarat as well as in Mumbai. Gujarati was the mother tongue of Mahatma Gandhi, who was born on October 2, 1869 in Porbandar, Gujarat.

The Gujarati script

The Gujarati language is written in its own script, which is also called Gujarati and is closely related to the Devanagari script, see Gujarati ગુજરાતી gujarātī vs. Hindi गुजराती gujarātī). The typical feature of the Gujarati script in contrast to the Devanagari is the lack of the horizontal top line, see ર ra vs. र ra or ત ta vs. त ta. A detailed description of the Gujarati script can be found in the article Gujarati script.

See also

Seminars

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Summary

Gujarati is one of the 22 national languages ​​of India and is spoken mainly in the state of Gujarat, but also beyond. Gujarati was one of the languages ​​of Mahatma Gandhi.