The NEET 2018 was easy

Since the data report for the 2012 Vocational Training Report, regular reports have been made on youth unemployment in Europe. The data have received special attention since 2013 at the latest, since in connection with the economic and financial crisis in many southern European countries there was an extreme increase in youth unemployment, which also triggered a series of political activities at European level. When using and interpreting the data, it should be noted that various measurement concepts for youth unemployment are used, the values ​​of which are generally below the most common indicator of the youth unemployment rate.341

Measurement of youth unemployment in an international comparison - approaches and empirical concepts

Proportion of unemployed young people in the labor force of the same age (youth unemployment rate according to the ILO concept)

This indicator provides information about the share of unemployed young people in the total labor force of the same age and is formed as the quotient of the number of unemployed and the number of economically active persons (employed plus unemployed) (Eurostat Metadata 2018) (see Chapter A10.1.3).341

Share of unemployed young people in the population of the same age (economically active and inactive persons)

Another key figure for unemployment among young people puts the number of unemployed young people in relation to all persons (economically active and inactive persons) in the same age group. It thus indicates the proportion of unemployed in the age group. Because of the larger denominator, the number is lower than that of the youth unemployment rate.

Relative youth unemployment

To z. For example, to control cyclical effects, one can put the youth unemployment of the respective country in relation to the total unemployment (according to ILO definition). For this purpose, Table D1.3-1 compares the unemployment rates of the under 25s with the unemployment rates of the 25 to 74 year olds. The resulting quotient (relative youth unemployment) shows the extent to which young people among the unemployed are particularly affected by unemployment.

NEET quota - Not in Education, Employment or Training: Young people who are not gainfully employed and who do not participate in education or further training

The indicator relates to the relative / percentage share of young people (of a given age group and gender) in the total population of the same age who are neither employed nor attending advanced training courses or pursuing training (Eurostat Metadata 2017). in the counter 2 conditions must be met for the respondents: (a) They are not employed (i.e. unemployed or fall under the inactive persons according to the ILO definition) and (b) they are not in education or training in the 4 weeks before the survey (neither formally not yet formally). The denominator refers to the total population of the same age group and gender, apart from those respondents who did not answer the question “Participation in regular (formal) education and training”.

In addition to the indicators in the BIBB Data Report 2014, Chapter E2, the overview has been supplemented by a further indicator. The so-called NEET rates (Eurostat 2018d) have been added to the rates for youth unemployment according to the ILO concept (Eurostat 2018a, Eurostat 2018f), relative youth unemployment and the share of unemployed young people in the population of the same age (Eurostat 2018b, Eurostat 2018g). The NEET quotas include all inactive young people who were not participating in education or further training at the time of measurement. Due to the different definitions and empirical conceptions, clear differences in the data can be seen. The data for 2017 are updated below. The annual data have been adjusted for seasonal fluctuations and thus provide more reliable results overall. To keep it up-to-date, the information on the quarterly quotas for the 3rd quarter of 2018 has also been added.

Youth unemployment according to the ILO concept

In 2017, too, unemployment among young people (15 to 24 years of age), in contrast to the age group of 25 to 74 year olds, fell significantly higher in all of the countries examined from Table D1.3-1. Compared to 2016, however, youth unemployment has decreased in all of the countries examined. This development has been particularly evident since 2013 for the countries that have been badly affected, such as Greece, Italy, Spain and Portugal342. The EU average has also decreased accordingly (2016: 18.6% vs. 2017: 16.7%).

Relative youth unemployment

However, if one looks at the relative youth unemployment in 2017, the extent to which the young working population is affected has increased slightly since 2016 compared to the adults in the EU average (27 countries) (2016: 2.48% vs. 2017: 2.49%) ). This can be explained by the decreasing unemployment of 25 to 74 year olds. This trend can also be seen in Germany, as despite the slight decrease in youth unemployment, the number of young people affected by not having a job has increased (2016: 1.87 vs. 2017: 2.00)343. Even for countries with a comparatively high number of unemployed among the 15 to 24 year olds, the decline in youth unemployment cannot be clearly reflected in relative youth unemployment. So not only young people have benefited from an upturn in the labor market, but also older people in particular.

Proportion of unemployed young people in the population of the same age and NEET quotas

If one looks at the proportion of unemployed young people in the population of the same age, then countries such as Italy, Spain, Greece and Portugal were among the countries with the most unemployed among the 15 to 24 year olds in 2017. France and Sweden also had comparatively high rates. The NEET rates also show that higher youth unemployment rates are also related to a higher percentage of inactive young people who did not participate in education or further training in 2017.

(Viktor Ulbrich, Philipp Grollmann)

  • 341

    For Germany, the labor force sample survey is carried out as part of the annual micro-census. There are differences between the figures for Germany from Chapter A10.1.3, as the age group used to calculate the unemployment rate is different.

  • 342

    A similar development can also be seen for Sweden, Great Britain, Belgium and Latvia.

  • 343

    In an international comparison, however, this is still at the lowest level together with Austria.