What is profile milling
Face milling 
Circumferential face milling. With circumferential face milling, the cutter axis is parallel to the finished surface (Fig. 1). The main cutting edges on the circumference of the milling cutter create the workpiece surface, the resulting chip is comma-shaped. Face milling. With face milling, the milling cutter axis is perpendicular to the finished surface. The milling cutter mainly cuts with the peripheral cutting edges (main cutting edges), while the front cutting edges (secondary cutting edges) only remove a thin chip from the workpiece surface.
The advantages of face milling compared to peripheral milling are:
- - There are always several teeth (cutting edges) in mesh, which results in smoother running and a higher metal removal rate.
- - Indexable inserts for high cutting speeds are easier to use.
- - Due to the high rigidity of the tool, large forces can be transmitted.
- - Good cooling lubricant conditions and rollable filament chips result.
- - The chip thickness changes only slightly while the cutting edge is engaged.
- - The average chip thickness hm can be up to 90% of the tooth feed fz, while it is only 15% to 40% with circumferential milling.
Circular milling 
Screw milling 
Profile milling 
Hobbing / hobbing 
Form milling 
Up-cut and down-cut milling 
According to the direction of the feed movement to the cutting movement, a distinction is made between up-cut milling and down-cut milling. With circumferential milling in the opposite direction, the rotary movement of the milling cutter is directed against the feed direction of the workpiece. Before chip formation begins, the cutting edge glides over the workpiece and solidifies the surface. This sliding under high pressure results in severe wear on the flank of the milling cutter. Up-cut milling is only advantageous if the workpieces have hard and abrasive edge zones. z. B. cast parts, and if the table drive is not backlash-free. With circumferential milling in synchronism, the cutting edge suddenly penetrates the workpiece. During the formation of the comma, the chip thickness and the cutting force decrease. As a result, a better surface quality can be achieved. The advantages of down-cut milling can be used to the full if a cutting edge is always engaged and the table feed works without play. When face milling with a symmetrical position of the cutter to the workpiece, the effects of up-cut and down-cut are negligible. If the cutter is positioned to the side, however, the cutting conditions are similar to those for circumferential milling. The direction of force pulls the cutter towards the workpiece during up-cut milling and pushes it away during down-cut milling. During contour milling, the cutting forces lead to elastic changes in shape on milling cutters and thin-walled workpieces. This can result in dimensional deviations and curved surfaces. When face milling with a central milling head surface, a changing direction of the total cutting force can trigger vibrations (chatter) (Fig. 4). The vibrations are influenced by a lack of rigidity in the milling spindle bearing, the workpiece or the clamping. An improvement is achieved if the milling cutter is off-center. because here the direction of the total force remains constant.
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