What is the name of the urine specialist

Soap boiler

The first traditional soap recipe comes from around 2500 BC. This was found in Tello, a small town in Mesopotamia. On a Sumerian slate of slate, the following portion specifications for making soap were carved in cuneiform: 1 liter of oil and five and a half times that portion of potash. Potash was the name given to the ashes of a plant that was rich in carbonate of potassium. At that time, for example, they were extracted from burned date palms and pine cones. Soap is also used in other ancient cultures. Egyptian murals show slaves clubbing the laundry in order to clean it.

For centuries the Romans and Greeks cleaned their laundry with ash liquor. But they never got the idea of ​​mixing oil and ash and boiling them. The Romans, however, knew a second source to get the coveted alkali. Not only did they use the alkali from wood ash (potassium carbonate), they also used rotten decomposed urine, which evolved alkaline ammonia, to clean their clothes in it. The clothes were often given to the washers, who were actually urine specialists. The process made the laundrers rich. When Emperor Vespasian (Titus Flavius ​​Vespasian 39-83 AD) wanted to collect high taxes from the washers, there were protests - as always in such cases. Amazingly, these protests also came from the imperial councilor. Thereupon the emperor formulated the saying for the first time: "Pecunia non olet." Translated, this means: money doesn't stink.

The Arabs of the 7th and 8th centuries proved to be particularly skilled at making soap, right after the time when Mohammed founded Islam. With the spread of this religion, the art of soap making came to Europe via Spain. Especially Spain, Italy and later France had the necessary raw materials. Olives served as a supplier of oil, and the ashes of seaweed contained soda. In France, the soaps were refined by adding scents obtained from various plants. This gave birth to toilet soap, which was highly valued as cosmetic soap balls at Europe's courts, but was an inaccessible treasure for the majority of the population. However, these soaps were not used for personal hygiene or cleaning laundry or floors. They were used for cosmetic or medicinal purposes, and from 1525 for men's shaving. Soap - especially curd soap - was an absolute luxury item that only well-to-do heads could afford. In addition, the desire to wash oneself and one's clothes regularly was not very strong.

 

With industrialization and the associated boom in the textile industry, there was a greater demand for soap at the beginning of the 19th century. Washing became fashionable. At first, the soap factories couldn't keep up with production; the raw materials tallow and wood ash became scarce. It was only through the import of cheap fatty raw materials from tropical countries and the invention of the inexpensive process for the production of soda that there was an adequate supply of raw materials. This paved the way for industrial mass production of soap, initially the sole detergent and cleaning agent. Most households made soft soap for their own use. Raw materials were potash and rapeseed oil, hemp oil, linseed oil, tran and tallow. Besides curd soap, soft soap remained the most important laundry detergent until the 20th century.