Is there a MOOC for hacking hardware

Seminar paper on MOOC's Massive Open Online Courses. 20th June 2014

Transcript

1 seminar paper on MOOC's Massive Open Online Courses Evren Özel Sebastian Frantzen June 20

2 Contents I Foreword 4 1 What are MOOCs? 4 2 Beginning and beginnings of MOOCs 5 3 Data protection question - What guidelines are there? 6 4 The different types of MOOCs xmooc's cmooc's cmooc vs. xmooc bmoocs and smoocs MOOC platforms and their providers 9 6 MOOC certificates Characteristics of a MOOC certificate Certificate types and performance requirements Sample model of a certificate Credit points for the certificates American territory Worse results - why ? German territory licenses - who owns the copyright? 15 8 Framework conditions - what is needed 16 2

3 8.1 Organizational framework Social framework Technical framework Number of participants Which groups of people use MOOCs Which age groups mainly use MOOCs Participation Participation patterns - who does what? Possible dangers of MOOCs Advantages and disadvantages of using MOOCs practical example Conclusion Source directory 26 3

4 Part I Foreword In recent years, new Internet giants such as Google, Facebook and Twitter have emerged in the private and corporate landscape. Their specialty is obtaining, processing and disseminating information on the Internet, especially through the analysis of social networks. One of Google's corporate goals is to make the information available to the population. The internet giant Wikipedia is pursuing the same goal, which has made a name for itself as a reference dictionary through all walks of life, especially among students and schoolchildren. Twitter and Facebook take advantage of the falling prices of technologies. Today almost every second person in the western world has an Internet connection and a cell phone. Thus it has become more interesting and convenient for the population to join the social networks. These two points, namely a large amount of information on the Internet as easily as possible and the drop in prices of technologies, support the concept of MOOCs and ensure that they are attractive to the population. Well what does the abbreviation MOOC stand for. Let's get to the bottom of the denition of MOOCs. 1 What are MOOCs? MOOCs, advertised Massive Open Online Courses are courses that take place online and, thanks to their open and free access, achieve high numbers of participants. There are different types of MOOCs, but more about them in the following chapters. MOOCs have certain characteristics, which we try to explain in more detail with the help of the following explanations. 1. The OPEN means that there are no entry requirements. The courses are open to everyone. Furthermore, it also has the meaning of the free offer. Even for the teaching texts, efforts are being made to obtain free versions. 2. MASSIVE denotes the non-existent participant restriction. There is no limit to the number of people who can take part. 3. The term ONLINE is intended to convey that there will be no technical laboratory phases. The courses take place on the web and require a client with internet access. 4. Another feature is the fixed structure in which the courses are carried out according to plan in 6-8 weeks. 4th

5 5. There is a teacher who arranges several short lectures in video format on the platform on one day of the week, whereby the total of the videos corresponds to approximately one lecture hour (45 min). 6. In MOOCs, the video sequences are interrupted by tests and ended with a test; Tests complete the week with it. There is also an exam in the middle and at the end of the MOOC. 7. The teaching videos of the lecture are also supplemented in forums so that the participants can communicate with one another and help one another. 8. The MOOC providers are also driven by similar motives: For example, Sebastian Thrun 1, who opposes the high study costs, pleads for the opening of higher education and the democratization of education. 9. One of the characteristics of MOOCs are the certificates that can be obtained (further explanation in chapter 6 on page 10) and that are issued by the teachers of the MOOCs. However, there are no certificates of achievement or credit points for students, even if the MOOCs are offered by the university through a contract with Udacity, Coursera or edx. MOOCs are individual courses, not degree programs. At least not yet. Udacity, for example, restricts itself to computer science and meanwhile offers courses. This would gradually give rise to the chance of a curriculum. [The denition and description of a MOOC was taken from Rolf Schulmeister's book 'Massive Open Online Courses', Chapter 1.1.] 2 Beginning and beginnings of MOOCs The term was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier MOOC to characterize the Geroge Siemens and Stephen Downes conducted course CCK08 2 (Connectivism & Connective Knowledge 2008) with approx. At the end of 2011, Sebastian Thrun, professor of computer science at Stanford University, played the pioneer and offered the first public courses on artificial intelligence. The first step was taken and the MOOC's (Massive 1 Sebastian Thrun (born May 14, 1967 in Solingen) is a German computer scientist and robotics specialist. He was Professor of Artificial Intelligence at Stanford University, is Vice President of Google and founder of Udacity company 2 5

6 Open Online Courses) followed quickly. Professor Thrun's course reported attendance of up to 6,000 people. As a result, he founded the company Udacity at the beginning of 2012, together with Peter Norvig, research director at Google. This company should offer online mass courses in the future. In April, Daphne Koller and Andrew Ng founded Coursera, who also work at Standord University and are computer science professors. In the fall, edx was founded by the universities of Harvard and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), which were later joined by UC Berkeley and other universities. Anant Agarwal from MIT, also a computer science professor, became president of edx. After the constant complaints about the mass lectures at the universities, the MOOCs are in return a cheeky declaration of war on university teaching. Since the end of 2012, the first German institutions have also been offering their own platforms with xmoocs, including the Hasso Plattner Institute with openhpi, IMC AG with OpenCourse World and the Digital School of the Leuphana University of Lüneburg. Rarely has a phenomenon shaped socially and technically and, especially in the educational sector, spread at such a speed as MOOCs. The American media reacted and reported about it daily. There were daily articles in "The Chronicle of Higer Education" and in "Inside Higher Education". [Analogous reproduction of the book 'Massiv Open Online Courses', by Rolf Schulmeister. The information comes from the preface and from the chapter CKK08 - the first MOOC (p.162). This book is also available online and the link is given at the end of this draft.] 3 Data protection question - What are the guidelines? Learning Analytics is the name of the method with which a lot of data is obtained from the students who take part in MOOCs. The question now arises, what can be done with this data and what can be found out in this way about "human learning" 3. What you can find out here are the successful and less successful text passages, exercise instructions, test questions or explanations. You can certainly analyze the rhythm of groups of students, discover their superficial time management, but it doesn't really say anything about LEARNING as such, because it includes a lot more like "Motivation, attitudes, intentions, plans, psychological factors like Angst, Coping, 3 titles of the book by Peter Faulstich (2013). Peter Faulstich makes it clear what an important role experience, intentionality and interest play in learning

7 Concentration, action-result expectation, sense of achievement, tendency to distraction "and much more. These are the assessments of Daphne Koller 4 With this data one can achieve maximally qualitative results which raise the question of how often, how long and how short, according to one Research team from Harvard and MIT.5 Because in reality, the MOOC operators want to make a statement about quality and to search for reasons for success and failure, to identify successful and less successful strategies The MOOC operators are also concerned with the informative value and the sale of personal data, something that is forbidden under data protection in Germany because students are considered dependent (of their examiners), whose consent to the sale of personal data is indirectly enforced So learning analytics would be an interesting tool if the knowledge is shared between the student en and professors would remain. "But the data from the learning management systems go to the publishers who sell electronic textbooks for the learning management systems, and the test results and forum contributions are sold to employers. If you know what all this data goes into, doubts arise as to whether it makes sense such methods. " [Analogous rendering of the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister, chapter Research on learning? Read tracks? (P.42-44)] 4 The different types of MOOCs 4.1 xmoocs One of them are the extended MOOCs (xmoocs). The x comes from the platform of the American company edx and originally stood for "extension" 6. xmoocs are video lectures, interrupted by tests and supplemented by homework, which an unspecified but large number of interested parties can look at on the Internet. 4 Daphne Koller : What we are learning from online education. TED Lecture. June There is also a German transcript of the lecture. 5 Lori Breslow, David E. Pritchard, Jennifer DeBoer, Glenda S. Stump, Andrew D. Ho, Daniel T. Seaton: Studying Learning in the Worldwide Classroom. Research into edx's First MOOC. Research and Practice in Assessment. Vol. 8, Summer 2013, is in the floating word of 'Massiv Open Online courses' by Rolf Schulmeister 7

8 4.2 cmooc's There are also the connectivist MOOCs (cmoocs), in which the participants themselves co-create and design the content. Dave Cormier describes them as follows: "cmoocs are the network-like discussion groups created through many different activities and tools that can take on the character of a workshop." cmooc vs. xmooc (small circle low value, large circle strong value, x no value and ticking has an effect) [This graphic was taken from the book 'Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister, chapter 2.4 cmooc vs. xmooc p.168 ] 7 Is in the foreword of Massiv Open Online Courses 8

9 4.4 bmoocs and smoocs Furthermore, there are dierentation forms, such as blended MOOCs (bmoocs) or small open online courses (smoocs), which have a certain degree of interaction and networking, through didactic settings, which also have an impact on the target setting / group can be distinguished. Further dierentation features are the content design and the technical instruments. [Analogous rendering of the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister p.9] 5 MOOC platforms and their providers List of American MOOC providers, taken from the chapter 'The beginning of the Open' S University of the People World Education University Marginal Revolution University Rheingold U Saylor.org The Floating University Minerva Academic Partnerships DreamDegree.org NovoEd (students from Stanfort) openuped (Portal EADTU) Mooc2Degree Oplerno Canvas Network Udemy Class2Go 10genEducation CourseSites (Blackboard) MOOC-Ed Open2Study (Australia) Veduca (Brazil) Schoo (Japan) FutureLearn (England) 2U semester online

10 List of platforms or courses with German participation: - "The Hasso Plattner Institute offers MOOCs on the openhpi platform. Christoph Meinel, Director of the HPI, reports on the courses that have been run via openhpi so far." - The architect of the Leuphana University Daniel Libeskind held an architecture MOOC under the title 'Think Tank - Ideal City of the 21st Century'. The President Sascha Spoun reports on the experiment. - On the American platform Udacity, Jörn Loviscach and Sebastian Wenicke have participated in two MOOCs 'Dierential Equations in Action' and 'Introduction to Theoretical Computer Science' and report on their experiences. - "Simone Haug and Joachim Wedekind dealt with the cmoocs, with which they themselves gained experience at e-teaching.org at the Institute for Knowledge Media in Tübingen." [Analogous rendering of the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister. Written in the foreword on page 11.] 6 MOOC certificates 6.1 What must a MOOC certificate have in order to be recognized by as many institutions as possible Name and insignia (s) of the MOOC provider Name and insignia (s) of the institution that With their reputation for the quality of the learning content and the authenticity of the services provided, clearly identifying personal data of the user (surname, first name, matriculation number if student, ID number, fingerprint, photo, etc.) guarantees the type of certificate acquired (certificate types follow in the next subsection ) Complete course title of the MOOC Clear identification that the completed course is a MOOC (so that no misunderstanding arises) Period within which the certified services were provided Detailed description of the content covered in the MOOC Detailed description of the services provided to obtain the certificate 10

11 Total workload due to the course. Quantification of the work performed with regard to partial and overall results. Final grade for the course in different grading systems. For example, in VLC 8, this includes the ECTS grades 9 German point system, school grades or the letters as in the US system. Number of credit points acquired for the course handwritten or scanned signature of one or more ocial representatives of the MOOC provider and the guaranteeing institution. [This list can be found in the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister on page 117.] Types of certificates and performance requirements "Different types of certificates can be awarded for MOOCs, which are dened by graded performance criteria." The information on the course, MOOC provider, participants and the course content always remain the same, but differ in the level certificate, which each has its own information on the services provided, the overall result, the grade, the workload, the sponsoring institution and the credit awarded Points (if offered) made. The certificate types and performance requirements may differ from providers and MOOCs. The following table shows the definition and distribution of the Virtual Linguistic Campus with the performance requirements to be met and the information on results, grade, workload and credit points contained in the certificate. 8 Virtual Linguistics Campus (VLC, successful provider of certified web-based courses for theoretical and applied linguistics. 9 European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System aims to ensure that the performance of students at universities in the European Higher Education Area is comparable 11

12 [The analogous rendition and the table are taken from the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister on p. 117.] 12

13 6.1.2 Sample sample of a certificate This page is a sample of a "Graded Statement of Accomplishment" in the VLC, taken from the book 'Massiv Open Online Courses' on the page

14 6.2 Credit points for the American Territory Certificates "The American Council on Education (ACE) recognizes three courses each from Udacity and Coursera. 10 Other universities offer credit transfer services, for example Colorado State University or the Council of Adult and Experential Learning. 11 "However, these offers will not be accepted. Colorado State University-Global Campus students who successfully completed MOOCs did not apply for credit. No student submitted their certificates to the Council of Adult and Experential Learning either. There may be no interest at all in formal recognition as credit points for studies. Maybe the MOOCs only serve the individual further education of people who have already completed a degree or is the exchange of certificates only interesting when a complete degree program can be covered with it? But it can also be that the hurdles are simply too great for many. For example, to get credit points at the University of Maryland University College (UMUC), you have to have booked the premium version of the MOOC with Udacity, which costs an additional $ 90. At Coursera you need the Signature Track for this, which incurs costs of $ 130. [P.55 Massive Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister] Bad results - why? Another reason for not counting the credit points for the completed courses would be the poor grades. There have also been universities that stopped cooperating with the platforms, e.g. Udacity with the San Jose State. Several courses were held here, but performed extremely poorly. The graduation rates here were 20-44%, which are typically 75%. "The computer science professor Thrun sees the blame for the timing of the courses.As a result, three courses in mathematics were offered by the Udacity. According to the statistics below, a significant increase in performance can be seen, but cannot be compared, as no comparison with the face-to-face courses was presented here. The first mathematics bridge course had a completion rate of the enrolled / non-enrolled students of 29.8% / 17.6%, the math course of 50% / 11.9% and the statistics course of 54.3% / 48.7%. Most of the courses were enrolled. "10 Paul Fain: Establishment Opens Door for MOOCs. The MOOC Moment, Inside Higher Ed, May 2013, Steve Kolowich, The Chronicle: The MOOC 'Revolution' May Not Be as Disruptive as Some Had Imagined

15 The determined success factors were: Continuous learning Devote more time online than in comparable face-to-face courses Carry out more tasks than half of the participants [Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister, S] German territory Credit points would have to be awarded by a university or equivalent educational institution . However, every university is prohibited from awarding credit points for courses that are not included in the curriculum or even to people who are not registered students there. Thus, the highest possible certificate is the "Graded Statement of Accomplishment", to be seen in the chapter on page 13, in the honor that this is recognized in educational institutes in Germany as well as abroad. Nevertheless, certification that "counts" is still aimed for, with the awarding of "MOOCs for Credits" via the VLC 12-xmoocs. In this respect, it should only be a matter of time until the framework conditions (access, examination forms, etc.) are adapted and MOOCs that have the required quality of content are included in the teaching programs of the provider universities. [Page, Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister] 7 licenses - who owns the copyright? Once implemented and revised MOOCs are produced and permanently available, they could be brought into constant use and used instead of textbooks. However, they cannot replace really good textbooks without running the risk of lowering the level of higher education. Rather, they should be seen as support and used in the event of comprehension problems. These instructional videos should be viewed as a kind of additional material, as the videos lack some features of scientific textbooks. In addition, the licensing issue has not yet been denied and clarified under copyright law. It is unclear who owns the copyrights of the courses. Some questions arise, for example whether the right is now granted to lecturers and / or authors 12 VLC: The Virtual Linguistics Campus has been a successful provider of certified web-based courses for theoretical and applied linguistics for over ten years 15

16 or the universities. Everyone has quick-witted arguments. After all, the universities pay him for the video shoot, they pay the lecturer for the work he does there, if necessary they release the professors or leave them a part of the repertoire of lectures so that they can concentrate and work constructively on the videos . The lecturers, in turn, do intellectual work here, and according to Denition, copyright should protect intellectual property. The videos and courses are successful and work thanks to your contribution. So these people also justifiably make claims on the products. The third party would be the platforms on which the courses and instructional videos are offered. In doing so, you take on the role of the publisher and also make claims on copyrights. As can be seen formally, no set of rules has yet been established that legally covers the gray area. For the time being, there is nothing left but to wait until the development "MOOCïn" passes the maturity phase and authorized persons / committees or even organizations come together to set up such a set of rules. The next question is who has such authorizations or even who [Analogous rendering of the book 'Massiv Open Online Courses' by Rolf Schulmeister, page 54-55] 8 Framework conditions - what is needed 8.1 Organizational framework conditions Organizationally, if you haven't already had some experience, you have to get skilled workers During the video shoot, it is important to know the angle at which you record the whole thing, whether you use different perspectives, whether and when you need to illuminate something, which drawings or sketches you may show longer and what you can say when best for the individual scenes. The trained staff works with you certain tips (record sound and image separately) and tricks (certain gestures for situations) to get the most out of the instructional videos and to deliver maximum quality. In addition, the universities should give thought to the organizational objectives of the strategic considerations. Are there universities that support each other while shooting? How many universities should participate in the video shoot? What are the goals of the universities and would they cooperate with the MOOCs? These and many other questions should be asked before tackling this whole thing. 16

17 8.2 Social framework conditions The social framework is concerned with observing and understanding trends in society so that one is adapted to the target groups and the education market. 8.3 Technical framework conditions First, you should think about the need for technical materials and think clearly before starting a MOOC project. A distinction has to be made here between hardware and software. In terms of hardware, you should determine how much storage capacity and resources are required. One has to think about how many instructional videos are uploaded? How much gigabyte of storage is used per video? How easily accessible should the platform be? How well should one be able to download and upload? Even the staff for the maintenance of the videos or the servers have to be considered. In terms of software, you also have to make decisions. Which tools should the videos be edited with? What do the portals / platforms offer for (additional) functions? General technical means that are required include sensible video cameras, professional sound recording devices that can filter out audio recordings that are as disturbing as possible, or lighting tools for optimally illuminating and illuminating the display materials. If the question arises as to whether such MOOCs should also be held in lecture halls in some cases, these rooms must be technically adequately equipped. [Content reproduction from reading L3T, Chapter 48 "Technology in University Teaching - Framework Conditions, Structures and Models"] 17

18 9 Number of participants In August 2012 the press reported: "Coursera reaches students", Udacity edx was just going into operation. A year later, in August 2013, Coursera had over 4 million registered users with 417 courses from 84 partners. Coursera initially only wanted to take specific universities on board, but then changed its strategy and now wants to have as many as possible with them in order to stand out from the crowd and become indispensable. Udacity offers 28 courses, thematically limited to the basics of computer science, statistics and mathematics as well as special topics in computer science such as artificial intelligence. edx has 59 courses from the world's best colleges and universities, limited to 28 partners. 9.1 Which groups of people use MOOCs Who actually takes part in MOOCs, including cmoocs? This question is not entirely unjustified and shows that not only students use these platforms. No, they are even outnumbered. In the three German-speaking cmoocs (OPCO11 13, OPCO12 14 and MMC13 15), only about 10% students were registered, about 60% people working in education and 15% freelancers. For these addressees, their own further training and their general interest in the topic are certainly in the foreground, not the acquisition of a certificate. 9.2 Which age groups mainly use MOOCs A look at the participating age groups of the above-mentioned platforms (OPCO11, OPCP12 and MMC13) shows: year olds approx. 12% year olds approx. 30%> 40 year olds approx. 50% use the online courses offered by uni-frankfurt .de / opco11 /

19 9.3 Participation How many participants does a connectivist course need to function? Is there a critical mass? According to Lindern, 2013 it says: "From the learner's point of view, it's actually not about the absolute mass, but about the critical mass". Even according to Downs, what characterizes a massive open online course is less the mass of participants than the capacity and infrastructure that has to enable cross-platform communication and activities. As a guide for a good size for cmoocs, he sees 150 active participants Participation patterns - who does what? The following graphic should clarify how MOOCs and especially cmoocs are used. There are different types of users: those who only read the content or even just leaf through it and also those who actively participate and comment on the blogs. These were the extremes now. But there are also a handful of other surfers who are in between who use these courses to further their education. With the help of evaluation results, the following graph could be worked out. [The numbers as well as the content come from the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister on page 190.] 19

20 [Grak comes from the book Massiv Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister, to be found on page 191.] 10 Possible dangers of MOOCs The author Rolf Schulmeister of the book MOOCs names some dangers that are not so absurd and just as likely to occur like the hype surrounding the sudden desire for massively open online courses. The MOOCS would offer freedom of education as a business model is fundamentally wrongly formulated. He is of the opinion that the MOOCs of the for-prot institutions Coursera, Udacity and edx carefully protect their content and sell it to other universities. You would have the courses and their content developed by some university teachers or universities and sell them to other universities. Also in the future there will be professors and universities who will continue to provide free MOOCs, but no entire courses can be filled with the individual MOOCs, so that education in the sense of adult education is always guaranteed. The next question to be asked is how long will there be teachers who will certainly not create and carry out such low-effort MOOCs? Who would be willing to invest unpaid efforts in the long term for activities, for nice but non-binding offers? Let us continue to argue that the MOOCs can prevail in the long term and are accepted by the universities, for example to replace missing courses and that means at the same time to compensate for a lack of teaching staff and underfunding of the universities. What could that 20

21 for consequences? Certainly no peaceful coexistence of the MOOCs alongside the face-to-face events. Here the danger would be great that one would have to spend less money in order to convey the same knowledge to a larger mass. If you could acquire the same credit points in the MOOC as in a face-to-face seminar, then in the worst case, the teachers would be dropped. The social factor would not have been thought of at all, but with the huge sums of money, it would hardly be a problem. MOOCs have some advantages, but they cannot replace "face-to-face learning", as certain properties are simply not given. The didactic, psychological and communicative differences between classroom teaching and MOOC would quickly become meaningless for the financier. Finally, let's put the Open to the test by letting the universities develop the MOOCs so that their students can acquire the certificates for a fee (through enrollment). After all, such a MOOC would be free of charge for all non-registered persons. Is that to be understood by freedom of education? "Can such a business model - in which a few students pay for the freedom of education of many others - work at all in a capitalist society?" (Page 58, MOOCS by Rolf Schulmeister) 11 Advantages and disadvantages of using MOOCs For a university, school , University or a company is an important aspect of MOOCs to be innovative and attractive. For the audience there is the advantage that they can visit different MOOCs regardless of location and time. This promotes self-organizing learning, especially among students. A big problem with a regular mass event is the low level of interaction between teachers and listeners. Reasons for this are the feedback delay, the unwillingness to ask questions and the general reduced attention of a frontal lecture. Also, the attention span is only 20 minutes, while a lecture is 45 or 90 minutes. This problem can be solved with the help of MOOCs, since recorded videos can be stopped and played back at any time. It is also possible to look at a section again if you have problems understanding or if the pace is too fast. In the case of recorded MOCCs, however, it is not possible to ask questions. Another reason to offer MOOCs, this time from the lecturer's point of view, would be feedback. He could start surveys to evaluate his course and expand it accordingly and adapt it to the audience. The anonymity also creates a property that is supposed to make it easier for the audience to answer truthfully without drawing any personal conclusions from it. With the help of various tools, the answers can be evaluated immediately and displayed visually. 21

22 There is also a benefit for the creators of MOOCs, namely the expansion of the knowledge horizon. This is used for further training in professional life and can possibly be specified as an additional qualification for a job change. Furthermore, they collect their experiences and can then support the "newbies" who also want to set up MOOCs. Let us summarize the advantages and disadvantages of MOOCs in a table: Advantages Independent of location Independent of time Videos can be repeated several times View for the HS if innovative technologies are used Easier to obtain feedback for the lecturer Further training for the MOOC turner Self-organizing learning Lifelong learning Disadvantages Additional costs for staff to be replaced Additional costs for rotating the instructional videos. No questions can be asked. Feedback delay. A question can be dealt with immediately in the lecture 12 Example of a MOOC, based on a course offered by the platform opensap.com 22

23 Here is a practical example to get an overview of how a MOOC can be structured. You first register on this platform, enter your data in order to receive a certificate later after (successfully) completing the course. Here we have registered for the course SAP Business Suite powered by SAP HANA. Here a short introduction is given at the beginning and some information and clicks further, you can start with the course. In order to be able to understand the structure of this page (picture), the following brief explanations of the individual symbols are given: - The "book" gives us an introduction, describes the structure and the course of the course and gives essential information about when and which chapters are published what to keep to. The orange selection means that you are currently on this mask. If such a symbol has a tick, it means that this mask has already been viewed. At the end, shortly before the final test of the week, the "assignment", there is another such book symbol. The spoken texts can be downloaded here as a PDF document. As someone whose first language is not exactly English, there may be slight problems understanding due to pronunciation or speed. This has been taken care of and a download area has been added. - The monitor says that an instructional video is waiting for the user here. Here the lecturer speaks into the camera. Any information that is requested later can be found in the respective video sections. - The lamp is used to query information and knowledge. In advance you could learn something about the topic in the video. The newly learned information is queried here. On this platform, these "course tests" are not compulsory and therefore do not have to be completed. - As mentioned briefly earlier, the assignment has a final-checking function. This test is longer than the ones in between. This test is mandatory if you want to get a certificate and you have a time limit to complete this test. On the left side of this picture, you can find out where you are currently by means of the navigation. This course is completed in four weeks, for example, and by confirming the link, you get to the desired week. [Practical example from 23

24 13 Conclusion - Our outlook as a suggestion for improving the future of MOOCs This is how you come to the end of our seminar topic, Massive Open Online Courses. We have learned something about the creation and history, now we know who and, above all, what the MOOCs are used for. In the meantime the first studies can already be carried out, even if this area is still quite young.However, we would now like to write something about the future, how we see it all, where we could see the MOOCs and how the platforms and technologies should best change. Up to now it has been the case that colleges and universities practically exempt their lecturers from the lectures so that they can shoot and offer such courses. Chapter 7 (Licenses - Who Owns the Copyright?) On page 15 deals with this. Now it is a question of tied up capital. The teaching institutions certainly cannot or do not want to bear these costs on their own in the long term. There is a lack of teaching staff and in most universities there are items in the budget plan with higher priorities than sharing knowledge with the community on the Internet. Incentives must be created so that the MOOC directors do this on a different occasion. You should give these people new or better opportunities for advancement or even increase the budget. Since MOOCs are still in their infancy and are a very innovative and prestigious topic for a university, the people should be recognized for the fact that they use their time wisely and often share their knowledge with those eager to learn. Ultimately, the extra effort should be rewarded. With new incentives one could certainly design a new construct with which one could win more parties for it. Subsidies from the federal and state governments would also be measures to build up this model. Further education or training opportunities for filming MOOCs should also be offered. It is important how these videos are shot in order to be able to learn from them efficiently. You have to pay attention to a lot if you want to set up such a video or even an entire course. In which room and with which brightness should the film be rotated? At which angle do you have to focus and record which parts? First, the video should be shot and then spoken to and the texts should be recorded without background noise. There are many factors to focus on. A video is not recorded quickly and is immediately suitable for education. You have to worry about what to say. In a nutshell, you should be able to contain yourself, because it has already been proven that the attention span is 20 minutes. This is at least based on the contribution of the authors Kopp and Ebner, which in 'Technologies in University Teaching - 24

25 Framework conditions' refer to D. Frenkel B. Smith (2001) 'Understanding Molecular Simulation'. You should make valuable use of the time. Regarding the structure of the MOOCs, one can say that some platforms do this quite cleverly. On the page you can take courses in the weekly assignments that are structured in the following format: Short instructional video -> short test -> instructional video -> short test -> ... -> final test (60 minutes to answer all questions) The instructional videos last between 4 and 16 minutes, sometimes contain sketches and slides and convey knowledge that is queried in the subsequent and final test. Here you constantly switch between paying attention and reproducing knowledge, so that you don't lose interest or even record everything as quickly as the lessons take up in instructional videos and end with a final test. The final test is then taken, checked and returned at the beginning of the next interval. At the end of this course, you will receive a certificate after passing a specified amount of assigments. Where and whether these certificates can be credited at all is explained in Chapter 6.2, Credit Points for the Licenses on page 14. We perceive MOOCs as an innovative and promising topic. However, the introduction and integration of MOOCs into everyday university life is not feasible without major efforts, as there are hardly any concepts or experience reports so far. That is why integration only works if all the necessary institutions pull together. At this point we refer to chapter 48 of the book L3T textbook for learning and teaching with technologies: "In order to promote teaching with educational technologies, the universities need product definition, differentiation of content, positioning on the market, support of the staff, the development of the organization and the provision of the technology. " 25th

26 14 Source directory 1. MOOCs Massive Open Online Courses by Rolf Schulmeister 2. MOOCs in digital form supplementary texts / 2960volltext.pdf (May 2014) 3. L3T - textbook for learning and teaching with technologies also available as an e-book: (May 2014) 4. Behr Arne: Statistics: Everything about online advertising. (May 2014) 5. (May 2014) 26