What factors drive people to spirituality
What is the significance of spirituality for pedagogy? How teachers can use spiritual practices in the classroom
Table of Contents
List of abbreviations
1.1 Reference to the study project (2018/19)
2 Theories, methodology and definition of the terms relevant in the context
2.1 Evolution and Spirituality
3 Spirituality - what is it?
3.1 Spirituality and Educational Work - A Brief Retrospective
3.2 Spirituality, a Basic Need?
3.3 Spirituality as meaning
3.4 Spirituality as connectedness
4 Spirituality in Education
4.1 Spiritual practices as a teaching tool
5 Summary and answer to the research question
6 Conclusion and outlook
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This present work is dedicated to the relevance of the phenomenon of spirituality for educational work due to its cultural-historical interweaving with pedagogy. The question of a contemporary understanding of spirituality and its possible usability for educational work in a high-tech neoliberal society are subjected to a philosophical consideration. For this purpose, results from human medicine, psychology, biology, bio and quantum physics as well as their relevance to the topic are taken up and put in context. A basic definition is derived from these and the central components are brought into focus.
On the basis of a conception of the world and man that was based on the classic idealistic epoch and emerged from the Enlightenment of that time, the results of a research project carried out in 2018/19 and their relevance for educational work are outlined and analyzed on a transdisciplinary level using natural and humanities theories. The emerging interpretive framework for questions about the meaningfulness of human existence as well as the knowledge of the collective networking and dependence of all life within and outside of the planet earth ecosystem are clarified. The results may subsequently serve as a basis for discussion for expanding the current curriculum and its content through the methods and interventions described as examples and be useful for encountering current challenges facing society as a whole.
List of abbreviations
Figure not included in this excerpt
Since ancient Greece, philosophers and scholars have followed the trail of the answer to the question of the meaning of existence. A plethora of possible answers have since emerged, many of which point to the existence of a higher, common spirit. The further man advanced in evolution, the more the achievements of science helped him to make his own existence safer, more comfortable and more future-oriented.
From these increasingly controllable drafts for a successful life in an intact society, mankind gained knowledge and understanding of the mechanisms of nature, from the appearance of forms to the smallest units of organic life. On the way to this higher, common spirit, diseases were conquered and wars fought, but also species displaced and species extinguished. Nevertheless, people still recognize themselves today as rational being (Oscar Wilde), whereby it is becoming more and more evident that the established standards of reason have led humanity and the entire structure of the earth's organism to a decisive fork in the road.
The question of meaning seems either to have receded into the background or to the greatest extent faded by the given maxims of “faster, higher, further” of the last two centuries. People in the 21st century are confronted with a multitude of challenges and are also integrated in a comprehensive systemic context in which they are only able to lead a self-determined life to a very limited extent. He sees himself at the mercy of the increasing upheavals in the economic and financial system “without alternative” and at the same time is confronted with a split through ideologies that run like insurmountable rifts through the middle of society. The possibility to turn away from it and only to take care of the personal concerns is hardly given any more.
In civilized western society, in which everyone is free to choose from an abundance of possibilities for any needs, the question of meaning has become a crucial point of orientation for psychological and physical well-being. Even if forecast growth holds out the prospect of unlimited improvements, the individual often only feels the negative effects of these developments.
A meaningful existence is no longer just about daily survival and a roof over your head. The need to share one's own abilities with society in a meaningful way and to derive not only monetary but above all non-material benefits is becoming increasingly important. The quality of one's own existence can no longer only be measured in quantitative terms; people are asking for the meaning and purpose of the lifetime they have contributed to the community. The concept of work-life balance has become synonymous with giving daily progress a qualitative meaning, and this above all, but not only for the benefit of the whole.
Qualities such as care, generosity, and charity seem to be filled again as empty words with devotion, sacrifice, courage and confidence in order to counter the foreseeable failures of a mechanistic and materialistic social system. Even if the governing bodies of our Western value system seem neither able nor willing to responsibly respond to possible and necessary changes and implement them, more movements and initiatives are emerging at the roots of society. Communities that no longer want to join the irresponsible hustle and bustle, but instead strive for alternative strategies for action and begin to implement sustainable structures for a sustainable common future.
These models and methods for a sustainable and modern society, supported by respect for all living things and the necessary resilience, have not just existed since yesterday. Not only have they been in the trial phase for decades, but in many cases they have already been implemented. Nevertheless, the existing structures cannot simply be removed or even replaced. All the main areas of society are, similar to the example of the earth organism, complexly interwoven and interdependent. Nevertheless, as is so often the case, people are able to learn from mistakes they have made and to face the necessary changes.
Just as man and the image of man change, so does the world and the image of it and the further we progress, the more it becomes apparent how much humanity as a whole is dependent on one another. The task of education is to inspire and establish a contemporary awareness in growing societies.
It has always been the métier of this scientific area to implement current knowledge from other disciplines in its world and human view, but at the same time to take the necessary measures to ensure the continued existence of society by forming capable and willing participants in the processes of this modern world to ensure. It often seems to be a difficult challenge, since the educational concepts that have been developed obviously always seem to lag behind the zeitgeist. At the same time, an increasing amount of energy expenditure is necessary in order to continue the existing relationships between administration and consumption into the future. And more and more we see the growing members of our society confused and lost between addiction and depression.
A feeling of powerlessness and of not having grown up in the current generation of parents and the recurring demands for success with simultaneous happiness in life mostly seem to be irreconcilable opposites. Today's people constantly have to make decisions. He is urged to go on and on and to achieve more and more without ever being asked about that For what to deliver. The question of the meaningfulness of doing and the desire for constancy of being demand, as always, your answer.
It may seem strange to deal with such trivialities as an academic. If one moves as a practitioner in the field of social education, it is not only human deficits and pathological symptoms that become clear. It can also be seen more and more that the systematic structure in which we are all embedded and which we therefore also support, can no longer adequately do justice to the current image of the human being.
"Anyone who has recognized a problem, but does not contribute anything to its solution, becomes part of the problem themselves"The great Albert Einstein is said to have once said. At this point it should be a reminder for us that it is always possible for us to make a choice if we can only muster the courage to change. Which options of choice are available to us is always also a question of the underlying knowledge about this choice. Much of what was once believed has now been refuted by empirical results. There are also indications in the various scientific fields that not only enable rethinking, but also make it urgently necessary. The basis for changes is usually justified in an expansion of knowledge through new information that requires a different type of progress. The impulses and content for such changes will be dealt with in more detail below.
If one deals with the human condition, it is necessary to start as close as possible to the individual. Those scientific disciplines that deal with it are biology and psychology. The inner processes of humans, their thinking and feeling and the actions derived from them are still a central starting point in psychology. The question of why and what for is most likely to be asked here. But what brings people into the situation to even ask about it? Isn't it obvious that man in the western civilized world is in an extremely privileged situation?
On the basis of the insight into this privileged situation, the scientific discipline of education and training can ask itself the question of the extent to which the current image of the world and of man can meet the requirements of the current stage of evolution. The responsibility for this lies in the fact that the prevailing view of the world and people is passed on and conveyed to the younger generations by the educators working in the individual educational stages. Furthermore, the curricula and school types are based on the requirements of the social structures in which they are embedded.
Since the age of the Enlightenment and the individualization processes that resulted from it, there has been a steadily accelerating development in technology and economy. This has led to the level of prosperity and security in which western industrialized and neo-liberal societies find themselves today. At the same time, however, significant deficits and problems such as the much-discussed global warming, increasing environmental pollution, the ever-increasing demand for energy and the never-ending conflicts in many regions of the planet are becoming more and more obvious. These can be attributed to the developments mentioned on the basis of statistical data and make it clear that a continuation of economic activity according to the maxims of limitless growth with limited resources not only endangers the continued existence of this highly developed society, but also the human family as a whole.
Which changes in the world and human image are necessary in order to contribute to a prosperous further development of the individual and the human family as a whole can only be answered inadequately within the scope of this work. Nevertheless, a new understanding of the phenomenon of spirituality can provide impulses for looking at connections and mechanisms of action on a social and global level from different perspectives.
On the one hand, to illustrate more general mechanisms of the planet earth ecosystem in which humans are embedded. On the other hand, to reflect the currently prevailing image of the human being Homo oeconomicus and to replace the mechanistic worldview of nature and the planet as usable resources and thus to realize future-oriented visions for a prosperous coexistence as a globally connected human family.
The central theme of the present work is the relevance of the phenomenon of spirituality and its usability for educational work. The aim of this work is to contribute to a broader understanding of the phenomenon of spirituality. For this purpose, current research results from different scientific disciplines are used, related to each other and supplemented by the results of a research project carried out by the author of this work in 2018/19 and its results.
Due to the complexity of the subject areas presented and the limited scope of this work, a more in-depth analysis in all details is not possible, and the work therefore does not claim to be complete. The networking of the basic approaches to an overall picture relevant to the topic opens the space for further research and discussion.
Reference to the study project (2018/19)
The results of a study project carried out in 2018/19 coincide with the research results available to date on the phenomenon of spirituality from a wide variety of disciplines (Warnke 2017, Bucher 2014, Büssing 2011). In this survey, qualitative guideline interviews were carried out with representatives of different age groups on the understanding of spirituality. The participants of different ages (25, 31, 34, 42, 52, 70) all had academic backgrounds from different fields and spoke about their current understanding of the phenomenon.
They described their career and the development of their spiritual genesis and told about their current assessment of the importance of the topic, possible relevance references for the field of education and training, as well as the visibility of the topic in their social environment and the society to which they feel they belong. Along this longitudinal section, both the initial moments in the discussion and the progressive development of the understanding of the topic became clear and here, too, confirmed the previous research situation regarding the development of the spirituality of the individual.
Especially in the interviews with the participants working in the psychosocial occupational field, clues for further scientific discussion became clear to me. On the one hand, it shows in the context of the work of a psychotherapist the question of the meaningwhich a young girl asked her in a therapy session:
"... it will be helpful once again to move beyond that on a spiritual level and to deal with what is the meaning, (...) the meaning of life was once told to me by a (...) patient (...), a Teenagers. Does she (...) what makes sense, we are born then we suffer then we are treated more or less well or not, and then we die, maybe we have children in between, or even also not, what is the point of all this? "
(Appendix: IP4 141-148)
Furthermore, the descriptions of a social pedagogue give an insight into the world of her clients between the ages of 12 and 19, who show their need for analogue connectivity using their technological aids (smartphones) on various social media platforms (Snapchat, Instagram, Facebook) to a high degree seem to compensate for digital connectedness.
These tendencies show that the spiritual need for connection and the generation of meaning in life is an important issue in our society today and in the world of the next generation. The task of pedagogy is to meet these developments and to convey appropriate skills and framework conditions to the young people in dealing with current and future challenges. We are therefore all called to recognize and take responsibility for these developments in society as a whole and to act accordingly in accordance with the possibilities and necessities.
Theories, methodology and definition of the terms relevant in the context In order to approach the phenomenon of spirituality and to achieve an adequate understanding of its significance in human history, a review of the cultural development of humanity and its connection to spirituality is obvious. We use both archaeological findings and written records, which can be found in various religious traditions, for this purpose.
A wide range can be drawn from the cultural legacy of Stone Age man to the documents available from the centuries around the birth of Christ. Especially the Indian records of the Upanishads1 (700–200 BC) and the traditional philosophy of ancient Greece provide an insight into the complex ideas of transcendence of that time. A cosmology which, as an impetus for many a spiritual movement of the modern age, has provided impulses and has also received a multitude of structures of thought and spiritual practice up to the present day.
In the further course the increasing institutionalization of religions, especially Christianity, becomes apparent, which had a decisive effect on the development of society in the Mediterranean area and subsequently on the whole of Europe and beyond. The religions that have been established to this day have influenced developments not only in terms of socio-political, but above all in terms of power politics, the effects of which can be felt into the 21st century. The large religious communities in particular, such as Christianity, Islam, Buddhism and Hinduism, are still able to contribute to a considerable extent to social cohesion and at the same time to draw clear frames in the world and human image for the members of these faith communities.
The clear distinction between spirituality and religion is therefore essential in order not to degenerate into questions of religious belief between right and wrong or even into exclusionary and intolerant discourses. The essence of the phenomenon of spirituality can be inserted into an adequate worldview on the basis of scientific and humanistic knowledge of the current time in order to serve as a catalyst for a contemporary understanding.
The most obvious similarity between spirituality and religion can be found in the fact that we are dealing with belief systems and patterns that are not linked to concrete or empirically ascertained facts, but are based solely on the human ability to believe and trust in existence constituted by non-physical phenomena. Thus, there is also a reference to fundamental cognitive processes, which are influenced by the education, socialization and shaping of the individual by his environment and at the same time also enable change and further development.
This knowledge points the way into the disciplines of the humanities, which, as the name suggests, deal with spiritual principles and have proven to be an orientation for the development of modern societies and high cultures.
Evolution and spirituality
If one looks back through history, there is insufficient evidence that the phenomenon of spirituality has always been of fundamental importance for humanity. We find evidence of this not only in the traditional scriptures of the religions, but also in much older relics and pictograms that have been found around the world in the course of archaeological excavations. Many of the artifacts brought to light and discovered show representations of human-like beings and entire herds of animals, such as the Lascaux cave2, but also everyday objects that indicate the cultural nature of that time.
Concerning the spiritual world and human images of the life at that time mostly burial places and cult sites provide valuable information to draw conclusions and to collect serious findings. Also works of art and culture from the time of the Upper Paleolithic3 approx. 40,000-10,000 BC Such as the "Löwenman vom Hohlenstein", a figure carved from ivory with a human body and the head and extremities of a cave lion indicate possible cult activities and a specific cosmology (cf. Höffgen, 2016, p. 12). Recent excavations of a burial site, "Burial of Bad Dürrenberg"4, in today's Germany from the Mesolithic (approx. 10,000-5,000 BC), show elaborate arrangements of burial scenarios with valuable grave goods and everyday objects (ibid.) - things that obviously point to a possible life after physical death and in this Meaning were physically given to the deceased on a journey to another world. These references to a possible transition of an existing immortal essence of the human being suggest the already existing distinction between physical and metaphysical worldview.
In this context, Bucher refers to spirituality as an evolutionary advantage, in that the individual triggers neurological processes such as the release of opiates in the brain through ritual, consciousness-expanding practices and thus induces experiences of security, optimism and experiences of oneness. These processes strengthen the immune system and support the individual in dealing with the inevitability of their own impermanence. Here, spirituality shows itself as a complex brain function and provides explanatory approaches for the mode of action of shamanistic practices, which have been demonstrable for at least 30,000 years, and makes it clear that the phenomenon of spirituality must be understood as a basic anthropological constant (cf. Bucher, Anton A .: Psychology of spirituality, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim Basel, 2. 2014, page 27).
In recent times, a clear paradigm shift has emerged in which the established religious communities are increasingly losing followers, as the individual is increasingly striving for personal spiritual experiences and personal responsibility in questions of faith and thus science is also called upon to pay appropriate attention to the topic. Spirituality is therefore no longer just the field of theology, but is experiencing a kind of renaissance in various fields from human medicine to biology to more technical disciplines such as quantum physics. (cf. Heusser, Peter: "European intellectual history, newer spirituality and science", in: Büssing, Arndt; Kohls, Niko (ed.): Transdisciplinary spirituality: Scientific fundamentals in connection with health and illness, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp.13-21).
Starting from Wolfgang KlafkisTheory of critical-constructive educational science I attempt to establish the necessary relevance references by linking them to other theories of the natural sciences and humanities: on the one hand, the Field theoryKurt Lewins, which illuminate the psychological components of the human image and its aspirations in a more well-founded manner and, in the next step, through Viktor FranklsLogotherapy and their approaches of Willingness to make sense be expanded.
To the category or the factor of the Connectedness to take up and put it on a comprehensible basis, I prefer the work of the biologist Rupert Sheldrake and his theory of Morphogenetic fields, Clemens G. Arvays Theory of Biophilia effect and Dieter Broers Work on electromagnetic fields and quantum physics, which through further content Ulrich WarnkesQuantum philosophy be supplemented and able to make the potentials of an expanded world and human image understandable. The references to these scientific disciplines are relevant insofar as they are based on empirical and measured data for the understanding of Connectedness contribute away from the difficult to measure, emotional processes.
These sub-components are rounded off by a reference to sociological aspects, which are used to sketch a contemporary spiritual world and human image for educational work.
For the present work, I am guided by the following research question:
What is the potential benefit of an image of the world and of man expanded through spirituality for educational practice and as a compensation for the progressive alienation of man from nature?
In order to provide an adequate answer to this research question and to establish relevance references to work in pedagogical fields of activity, existing research results from various scientific disciplines are used and compared with one another. According to the hermeneutical methodology Wilhelm Diltey These research results are examined in terms of their usability for educational work and for the expansion of existing images of the world and people and placed in connection with the research question.
Although the nature of the phenomenon of spirituality is to be viewed as a rather subjective empirical knowledge, an adequate interpretation of the relevance for educational work can be derived from the hermeneutic point of view from the inherent ability of all people to have spiritual experience.
The following terms are used in this thesis to establish essential relevance references and require the previous definition:
Believing a certain fact to be true without scientific and methodological evidence, insight based on cognitive perception or personal experience as well as a basic attitude of trust, of the belief that it is possible and probable5.
Knowledge is the totality of knowledge in a certain area that is available for a person or a group and is considered to be secured on the basis of information, facts and experience6.
Spirituality is the understanding and awareness of the connection between the individual self and the social environment, the cosmos and nature, or creation in its entirety7 (more in-depth explication in the following chapter NOTE)
Connectedness the feeling of belonging to another person or group of people and of being in a mutual trusting relationship - this feeling is one of the four basic needs (self-worth, freedom, need to be loved) Friedemann Schulz of Thun8.
Meaning the creation of an inner order over the complexity of the world by the individual as a system and the resulting "constant updating of the possibilities" (Niklas Luhmann)9
Alienation of the state of progressive, but also final dissolution, of a naturally grown, original relationship with oneself, other individuals and circumstances, as well as with nature10
Society the set of natural and legal persons based on previously defined rules and framework conditions in an area limited to a certain region or common structures11
Nature is the entirety of flora, fauna and other material and immaterial components of the planet earth ecosystem that have not been manipulated or created by humans12
General social upheavals / problems / challenges can be seen in current social issues such as the climate, migration and financial crisis, increasing racism (not only in Europe) and totalitarian capitalism, military conflicts in resource-rich regions, side effects of digitization and even limitless consumerism and the resulting states of exhaustion and social decomposition processes at the expense of the globally networked ecosystem (Han 2014, 2018, 2019, Mausfeld 2018, 2019, Welzer 2018)
Spirituality - what is it?
When spirituality is mentioned, either associations with religious communities or ideas of esoteric and sect-like communities come to mind. The fact that the phenomenon of spirituality, on the one hand, has an extremely long history in the context of human history and, as it were, can be traced back to the oldest archaeological excavations as a constant in the cultural coexistence of people, indicates that this is a serious topic of high importance Relevance.
If you look at the phenomenon from a scientific basis, it is above all the humanities and humanities that have so far produced the most serious results in terms of research. These are primarily human medicine and psychology, but also scientific disciplines such as biology and its sub-areas are increasingly bringing research results to light that point to mechanisms that work in the background and connect everything. The subject area of theology should of course not be forgotten at this point, although it is strongly based on the traditional writings of the established religious communities.
One difficulty, which is already indicated here, is to work out a consensus-capable definition of the phenomenon of spirituality, on which workable theories can be generated and made usable for further research work. Furthermore, it has not yet been adequately clarified which scientific discipline would be responsible for researching and communicating the phenomenon (cf. Wilkening, Karin: "On the definition of spirituality - an experimental, integrative-comparing comparison of two definitions", in: Büssing, Arndt; Kohls, Niko (ed.): Transdisciplinary spirituality: Scientific fundamentals in connection with health and illness, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp. 37–51).
Nevertheless, there are sufficient findings in the mentioned disciplines of the humanities and humanities to outline and present an appropriate definition to clarify the relevance of spirituality in upbringing and education. The following discussion of the topic is based on the synthesis (definition C) of two definitions (definition A and B) elaborated by Wilkening:
Definition a (Büssing / Ostermann 2004)
“The term spirituality describes an attitude to life that searches for meaning and meaning, in which the seeker is aware of its“ divine origin (whereby both a transcendent and an immanent divine being can be meant, e.g. God, Allah , JHW, Tao, Brahman, Prajna, All-One etc.) to feel a connection with others, with nature, with the divine etc. Out of this awareness, he / she strives for the concrete implementation of the teachings, experiences or insight, which has direct effects on the conduct of life and ethical relationships. ”(Ibid.).
Here is a clear indication of a search for Sense and meaning as a fundamental attitude to life and, furthermore, the endeavor to experience the Connectedness or of being integrated into a larger whole consisting of social, ecological and transcendent components. In the implementation of the efforts, there is an orientation towards written regulations, but also experiences and / or insights of the individual and their effects on their habitus and worldview.
Definition B. (Steinmann 2008)
“Spirituality can be defined as a positive basic value, as its own existential dimension of being human, which is supported by a longing for life fulfillment and a sense of meaning beyond life and death. It manifests itself in an individual dynamic development and awareness process in all phases of life and areas of life, in different ways of life and life orientations, and connects through the inner experience of a transcendent reality with the surroundings and the environment. ”(Ibid.).
In this definition outlined by Steinmann, there are predominantly transcendent components and the description of spirituality as a condensate of one Development process it the Awareness, furthermore as an existential dimension of basic values ascribed to being human, driven by a longing for Sense experience and Life fulfillment.
In Wilkening's comparison and synthesis, these merge into the following:
Definition C. (Wilkening 2011)
“The term spirituality describes an attitude to life that is searching for meaning and meaning, in which the seeker himself / herself his (...) of their "divine" origin and participation (…) deliberately becomes (…) (whereby both a transcendent and an immanent divine being can be meant, e.g. God, Allah, YHWH (…), Tao, Brahman, Prajna, All-One, etc.) and a bond with others, with the animate and inanimate (...) Nature, with the divine , Absolute, pure being (...) etc. feels. Out of this awareness, he / she strives for the concrete implementation of the teachings, experiences or insights, which have direct effects on the conduct of life and the ethical references in all phases and areas of life (...) Has . Associated with this is an individual development and awareness process in which the seeker becomes aware of the spiritual dimension of his / her human being as universal, existential and meaningful (...). " (ibid.).
Wilkening then points to the overlaps and mutually complementary components, but also to the criticized aspects of the definitions presented and the synthesis they have undertaken, which clearly indicates the need to limit the phenomenon to the following central components for the further course of this work do:
The juxtaposition of religion and spirituality clearly shows the different forms of exercise. Religion is increasingly lived in communities and joint activities, whereas spirituality can be recognized strongly in personal experience and independent practice. The concept of spirituality and its understanding of the further explanations is thus made up of the following three central components:
1. Experience of meaning
2. Feeling connected
3. Development process of awareness and fulfillment through actions
Another important impulse in Wilkening's work comes from the fact that the search for spiritual experiences is also accompanied by unintended events from external influences (Wilkening 2011 in relation to Steinmann 2008 and Renz 2003). Wilkening describes this as "External work" on the "Inner" of the seeker (...), "but without it being demandable.", which already indicates possible feedback loops through the described "connectedness" from the environment and which is taken up and more understandable in the further course on the basis of scientific research results.
In order to take into account the completeness and clarity of the definition of the phenomenon of spirituality, it is necessary to distinguish it from religion or religiosity. Books points in his work Psychology of spirituality (2014) pointed out both overlaps and essential distinguishing features of the two constructs. This clearly shows that the understanding of spirituality is largely based on individual experience and practice and is understood as an open and integrating basic attitude, whereas religiosity is associated with factors such as institutionalization, dogmatism and regulation and is perceived as rather unattractive due to postulated exclusive claims to truth. (see Bucher, Anton A .: Psychology of spirituality, Beltz Verlag, Weinheim Basel, 2. 2014, pp. 61–69).
Ruschmann points in his confrontation with spiritual n Experiences and concepts n (2011) on the structural nature of spirituality as individual philosophy of life down. He recommends the fundamental embedding in philosophy due to its systematic nature, which is suitable as a framework for spirituality and the constitution of meaning equipped with appropriate metaconcepts such as ethics, metaphysics, anthropology and ontology.
“Metatheoretical considerations are especially important because definitions of“ spirituality ”often include aspects of the humanistic constitution of meaning (e.g. connection with other people and nature); In this respect, a clear demarcation of "meaning resources" that are related to transcendence from those that are "horizontally" ("this side", "immanent") is important, and this requires a philosophical / historical background "
(Ruschmann, Eckart: "Spiritual experiences and concepts" in: Arndt Büssing, Niko Kohls (ed.): Spirituality transdisciplinary: Scientific foundations in connection with health and illness, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2011, pp.93-106) .
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