What is Gudibande known for?


There are many beautiful palaces in India. Everyone is beautiful in their own way - be it in bright colors, arches and domes, or in beautiful gardens. Many of the palaces are still the official residences of members of the royal family, while others have been converted into luxury hotels. From the famous Mysore Palace to the floating Jal Mahal, you'll find some of the most beautiful Indian palaces here.

Shesh Mahal (Palace of Mirrors) is the most famous part of Jaipur Amber Fort. Paintings and flowers carved from glass cover the walls and ceilings, giving the palace its name.

The intricate design of the five-story Hawa Mahal or Palace of the Winds in Jaipur was based on the fact that women from the royal family were supposed to watch the celebrations outside the palace as they were not allowed to perform in public.

Udaipur in the City Palace is a complex of 11 beautiful palaces with gardens, gates, courtyards, terraces and corridors on the shores of Lake Pichola.

The Mysore Palace in the southern Indian state of Karnataka is still the official seat of the Maharajas of Mysore. The palace was completed in 1912 and is a mix of different architectural styles: Hindu, Muslim, Raiput and Gothic.

Mysore is the most impressive and beautiful of the Indian palaces at night.

A stunning architectural masterpiece made of white marble, the Taj Mahal is India's most famous monument. It houses the grave of the wife of the former Mughal emperor.

Umaid Bhawwan Palace is both a luxury hotel and a residence of the Jodhpur royal family. It is located on 26 hectares and is made entirely of sandstone, which gives it a unique look.

Jal Mahal, known as the Palace of Water, appears to be a floating city in the middle of the Sagar River in Jaipur. The building has four floors below the surface of the water. The imposing palace is now an exclusive high-end restaurant.

Fatehpur Sikri is translated as the city of victory. The complex of temples, palaces and monuments was built by the Mughal emperor in the 16th century as the capital of the empire and then abandoned due to a lack of water. It is made entirely of bright red sandstone.

The city palace, built in the 18th century by the American ruler, is now part of Jaipur.

There are other palaces in the city palace: Chandra Mahal, which is now the museum, and Mubarak Mahal.

The Chowmahalla Palace was built in the late 19th century during the reign of the Nizams in Hyderabad and was the place where the royal family entertained their guests.

The Nizams were part of the Asaf Jahi dynasty, which ruled until 1948.

The Lakshmi Vilas Palace is one of the largest in Vadodara - formerly known as Baroda - a city in the western state of Gujarat. The Vadodaroi royal family still lives here.

This beautiful palace took 6 million rupees to build. The palace has gardens, a golf course and stunning interiors with chandeliers, artwork and mosaics.

The Bangalore Palace is located in the southwestern state of Karnataka and belongs to the same family that also owns the Mysore Palace.

It is built in the Tudor style, making it an interesting landmark that stands out from many other buildings in the area. The floor patterns are fantastic.

The Rambaj Palace was originally built in 1835 for the beloved maid of the Queen of Jaipur and was later converted into a hunting lodge and renamed Sawai Ram Singh II by the ruling Maharaj. It is now a luxury hotel.

Jagmandir Palace is a 17th century palace that has been converted into a luxury hotel. It is located on its own island in Lake Pichola in Udaipur. Guests are taken to the palace, which is often referred to as the "Garden of Heaven".

Often referred to as the central Agartala, the Uzhdayantha Palace was built in 1901 by the 182nd maharajas of Tripura in northeastern India. The only part of the palace that is open to visitors is the museum within the palace, which houses cultural artifacts and memorabilia.

“Junnar-grad stands on a rock that is not fortified by anything and fenced in by God. And the way to this mountain is one day walking by one person: the road is narrow, two cannot go through "
(Afanasy Nikitin. "To cross the three seas." Translation by P. Smirnov.)

A Chinese traveler noticed this as early as the 7th century Indian cities and the villages were surrounded by walls with gates and towers made of raw or burnt bricks, although our traveler Afanasy Nikitin saw the city there, aside from natural obstacles that weren't were protected. For most of the Middle Ages, wars were incessant in India. Local rulers - rajis - fought among themselves, and Arabs and Mongols invaded the country from the north. A special military feudal class of Rajputs even emerged in India - professional warriors, and indeed the same knights who constantly studied the military craft and were always ready to march.

The Indians built five types of fortresses, which differed in their location: in the desert, on the water, in the mountains, in the forest and in an earthen fortress. Most powerful was the fortress in the mountains, as well as the fortress, which was occupied by a particularly devoted garrison! The walls of the fortresses and castles of the nobles in India consisted of two rows of masonry with earthen or crushed stone filling in between (they were also built in Europe). The bricks were not attached to each other: they were under their own weight. At the same time, the thickness of the walls ranged from 2.5-10.5 m. Sometimes there were several such walls, and between them trenches were dug, filled with water or put with sharp piles. Venomous snakes were even kept and fed in trenches near other castles. Such a "living one" was even more frightening and effective than deep trenches with stakes on the ground.

The largest fortress in India is Kumbalgarh. It has 700 (!) Bastions and more than 360 temples inside. The rulers of Mewar included themselves in it in case of danger. Today it is open and can be visited 90 km north of the city of Udaipur.

Embrasures were placed in the walls, but mashikuli, common in Europe, did not appear in India until 1354. The gate was defended by two massive barbicanes with a winding passage between them. Tower cabins with embrasures for archers hung above them. The gates even in Indian fortresses were always double-winged and very high: an elephant with a litter tower on its back had to pass freely through them. However, the great height weakened the gate. That is why they are made of very durable teak wood that is not padded with iron. In addition, teak or iron spikes were attached to its outer wall. They did not allow the war elephants, which the opponents used as living battering rams, to approach the gate. But the relief images of elephants that adorned the walls of the gate were considered reliable amulets, as were the statues of Hindu deities.


Kumbalgarh Gate. There are seven of them in the fortress!

In India's hot climate, water was paramount. Therefore, there were reliable wells and reservoirs for collecting rainwater in every castle or fortress. Gardens and fountains were often planted nearby to freshen the air and soften the oppressive tropical heat.


The Kumbalgarh bastions are similar in shape to a Buddhist stupa. Below for the scales people, donkeys and bars with wires.

Every castle and fortress in India had numerous underground rooms where everything needed for a long siege was prepared in advance: water, grain, ammunition, etc. The importance of building defensive structures in India was given by the then terrible custom underlined the human sacrifice. It was believed that at the beginning of construction, to perform such a ceremony, the castle or fortress would be impregnable as it was built on human blood.


If you look at the walls of many Indian forts from below, you will get dizzy!

Medieval fortresses with massive walls and towers were erected in India until the mid-18th century, which is almost three centuries longer than in Europe. At the same time, the desire to impress both enemies and friends was so great among the Indians that they often erected mighty and thick walls even when it was not necessary. For example, the fortress could be built on a steep cliff. The walls and towers were covered with carvings and stucco ornaments. In addition, they tried to give the battlements on the walls a decorative shape.

And this is by no means an Indian nuclear power plant, but ... the bastions of the Deravar fortress in Bahawalpur.

In southern India, numerous rows of walls were usually built around Hindu temples, which in this case served as castles and fortresses. The gate towers near these walls sometimes reached a height of 50 m and made it possible to observe the surroundings.


The temple tower is 28 meters high. From her it was possible to carry out surveillance.

The fortified mausoleums played the same role - the same castles or fortresses, in fact. However, the most famous mausoleum in India is still not a fortress, but a funerary temple accessible to all. This is the world famous Taj Mahal. Storming Indian forts was much more difficult than storming European ones, largely because of the heat that exhausted people and animals. Throwing machines were similar here to Europe, but baskets or earthenware vessels with snakes were often used as projectiles.

Well, let's see at least some examples of Indian serf architecture because it is simply impossible to see them all because there are so many of them. Not just much, but much, and for the most part they are themselves in excellent condition, not so numerous knightly castles the same Great Britain.


Golconda fortress. Bala Hissar (Citadel). Golconda, Andhra Pradesh.

First we will go to the Golcondu fortress, which is only 11 kilometers from the city of Hyderabad, where, by the way, there is a very famous university in India where many students from Russia study, and there are those who go there for free with scholarships Indian Government Study! Diamonds used to be mined here and all the most famous diamonds in the world were mined here! Hence, the local rajahs did not save any money on the fortress. It was built on a 120 meter high hill and fortified with 87 bastions, many of which still have rusty cannons to this day.


These are the stone cores that the medieval Indians used to shoot their fortresses. There was an iron cannon nearby, which miraculously did not melt down.


"But we found you another weapon!" Thank you, girls, of course, but only the gun is "not that". However, there are many British weapons of all kinds in Indian forts.

Four drawbridges lead into it and there are warehouses, mosques and 18 granite mausoleums. The acoustics of this building are amazing, which of course attracts guides and the attention of tourists: one kilometer from this place you can clap your hands on one of the gates! Well, the first European was our famous Afanasy Nikitin, who not only visited Golconda but also described it.


Ordinary fortress gates.


The gate leaves are covered with thorns.

The most amazing thing is that with its huge size, Golconda is not at all impressive compared to other Indian forts. Whether the fortress Mehrangarh - the citadel of the Rajputs in the northwestern part of the state of Rajasthan.


Mehrangarh Fortress appears to be growing out of a rock.


The view of Mehrangarh from above is probably even more impressive than from below.

The fortress is located on high rocks and if you look at it from below you get the impression that it is simply carved out of the rock that stood on it. It seems that human hands are incapable of erecting such a structure, and even in the heat there, but they did. And when and how and with whom - all of this is certainly known. They started construction in 1459 and didn't finish it until the 17th century!


Another gate and next to the fortress wall.

The main gate to Mehrangarh is in the Victory Tower - one of the seven tallest towers guarding the approach to the fortress. Beyond that is a winding and steep road, around which rise walls with terraces of open pavilions and living rooms with barred windows through which you can watch everyone who passes below.


The wall and pavilions on it.

The iron tower is famous for its beauty of decoration; The Pearl Palace is built of snow-white marble, and the throne room itself, which is located on the top floor of the Flower Palace, is in no way inferior in its luxury to the premises that were intended for the Great Mughals themselves.


Fortresses of India - literally whatever you take are huge and seem to grow out of sheer slopes. The impression is that nothing was impossible for their builders. Neither extraterrestrial nor anti-Diluvian civilizations helped them, and many European travelers saw them built.


But this photo has nothing to do with the fortresses, but it is very interesting. There's a temple in India ... of rats! You will be loved, appreciated and fed there!

India and the sights of India occupy a special place among the countries of South Asia. India is located on the Indian subcontinent, surrounded by Pakistan, China, Nepal, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Afghanistan. It has a territory of nearly 3.3 million km 2 and a population of over 1.2 billion people. The natural and relief conditions of the country are diverse - from the majestic mountains of the Himalayas to fertile valleys with the great rivers Ganges, Brahmaputra and Indus.

Sights of India - photo and description.

This legendary land has preserved ancient cities and temples that are considered a true treasure trove of world heritage of history and architecture. In India, 30 sites are under the protection of UNESCO. Hence, it annually attracts millions of tourists who want to familiarize themselves with its history and culture. Most of the architectural monuments of ancient India that have come down to us are a unique blend of cultural and building traditions not only of different regions of the country, but also of the principles of foreign architecture that influenced them.


One of the seven wonders of the world - in Agra - can be called the calling card of the country and the most famous landmark of India. It was erected on the banks of the Yamuna River by order of Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of the ruler's beloved wife. More than 3 million tourists from different countries come here every year to see this luxurious architectural monument, built of snow-white marble and strolling through the picturesque park, laid out next to it.


Qutub Minar minaret in Delhi.

No less famous is India's landmark, the Qutub Minar minaret in Delhi. It is considered the most large building of its kind in the world. Construction, which began in 1199, took over 150 years. The material for its construction were the remains of 27 destroyed Hindu temples. Due to the corrugated surface of the walls, which is created by alternating round and acute-angled edges, the 72-meter-high tower, which rises into the sky, appears light and airy. There are 379 steps leading up.


Chandragupta pillar.

Next to the minaret on the territory of the complex of ancient ruins stands the iron column of Chandragupta, built in the 4th century BC. Came out from under the hammer of the old forge. The height of this cultural landmark of India is more than 7 m and its weight exceeds 6 tons. The uniqueness of creating human hands lies in the fact that, despite the almost 100% iron content, it does not rust. According to local legends, if you take this column and make a wish, it will surely come true. To protect the post from intrusive visitors, it was fenced in and armed guards were posted.


Amber fortress.

One of the examples of the palace and defensive structures of India is the Amber Fort near Jaipur. A rocky hill near Lake Maota was chosen as the site for the construction. Tourists can climb to the fort on foot or drive up by car, and exotic lovers can ride elephants.


There are many places of interest, including the Museum of Iron Figures and the "Ganesha Gate" which leads to the Royal Chambers, where you can stroll through the magnificent "Hall of a Thousand Mirrors".


Another of India's attractions - the Lal Kila Complex or the Red Fort - will eloquently tell tourists about the greatness of the Mughal dynasty. It consists of many structures that were built from red sandstone in the Muslim architectural tradition. The height of the walls of the octagonal fortress is 33 meters.The interior of the halls and pillars captivates with the elegance of ornaments, intricate marble mosaics, openwork wrought iron grids and weightless domes. There are several museums in the Lal Qila area where you can learn about ancient treasures and personal items belonging to members of the dynasty.


One of the pearls of Buddhist temple construction are the Ajanta caves. This is an ancient monastery made up of 29 temples and numerous monastery cells carved into the thickness of the rock. Work to create this ensemble began in the 2nd century BC. and lasted until the 7th century AD.


The beautifully preserved colorful wall paintings and carefully carved Buddha statues give the caves their uniqueness. The Indian monastery is a considerable distance from civilization so you can only enter it as part of an excursion group.


There are many attractions in India including the ancient temples that Krishna built. However, there are many modern buildings dedicated to this deity. One of them is on Mandir Marg Street in New Delhi. Lakshmi Narayana Temple is made of white and pink Nagar-style marble blocks. The decoration of the numerous towers, arches and galleries captivates with the elegance of the carvings, which are carried out by master stonemasons. Pilgrims and tourists can relax in cozy park with fountains near the temple, meditate in artificial caves or buy souvenirs in memory in a shop in the temple.


Nearby is a landmark of India - the Lotus Temple, which was built in 1986 and resembles a lotus flower in its outlines. It is one of the most visited places in India. Its 27 marbled petals make an indelible impression on visitors, especially in the evening when they are illuminated by special lighting.



In 2005 a new landmark of India was built - the Akshardham Temple made of pink marble, which even dwarfs the Taj Mahal in all its splendor. This is an entire complex that, in addition to the temple, includes a park area, artificial canals with light and music fountains, sculptures, souvenir shops, and numerous cafeterias. All of the beautiful marble surfaces have been handcrafted.


Trains of tourists go to Madurai, a temple city in southern India dedicated to the goddess Meenakshi. This architectural ensemble covers an area of ​​more than 6 hectares and is surrounded by high walls and 12 majestic towers adorned with painted miniature sculptures. There are around 730 of them in the west tower alone. Tourists can visit the local museum, which has many different interesting exhibits on display.


Somewhat unusual for Europeans are the temples of Khajuraho, which are decorated with reliefs depicting scenes from the Kama Sutra. The complex of these religious buildings extends over an area of ​​more than 20 km 2. Of the 85 buildings, only 22 have survived to this day, the rest were destroyed by Muslim troops. The art of the ancient builders made it possible to create the impression that each temple was carved from a solid mass and decorated with stone spikes and figures.



The Chand Baori well, which was built in the 9th century to collect groundwater and rainwater, shows the skill of the old builders. This grandiose 13-level reservoir with 3.5 thousand steps, with which water could be collected everywhere, is more than 30 m deep.


In addition to temples, there are many museums among the popular attractions in India, whose exhibits tell about the history and life of this beautiful, true person, great land infused with aromas of spices and exotic incense.

Throughout almost all of India's history, there have been incessant wars on its territory. Local princes fought with each other, empires converged in deadly battles. Arabs, Mongols, British, Dutch, French and Portuguese tried to bite off a piece of the "Indian cake". All of this forced Indian rulers to build fortresses, fortresses and citadels on the boundaries of possessions or in areas where important trade routes ran. Similarly, most of the Rajas and Maharajas built strongholds in the heart of their territory. Strengthening such a plan with palaces and dozens of temples and mosques did not resemble a large city ... Such fortresses have long been the stronghold of various dynasties. However, with the advent of more modern weapons and the permanent accession of the British Empire to the throne of India, the need for fortresses disappeared and most of them were abandoned and torn apart by nature and time.
Jivdhan Fort
An ancient Indian fortress on a hill in the western Ghats Mountains near the small town of Ghatghar (Pune District, Maharashtra State). It was built to control trade routes in the area of ​​the important Naneghat mountain pass that connects mainland India with the west coast. The name of this pass from the local means roughly - a coin pass (Nane pass, Ghat coin). In 1818 the fort was conquered by the British. The invaders looted and destroyed the fort and also destroyed all approaches to it. Now the ascent to the ruins of the fortress is popular with trekking lovers and has a high level of difficulty (V category)

Bankot Fort
Historians and researchers disagree on the date of construction and who built the fortress at the mouth of the Savitri. The first mention of bankot comes from the time of the Adil Shahs dynasty (1490-1686). In 1548 the Portuguese captured the fortress and took control of it. After some time, the commander of the Maratha fleet, Kanhoje Angre, recaptured the fortress from the Europeans and incorporated it into the Maratha Empire under a new name - Himmatgad. After the Marathas, the fortress came under British control for a short time and was renamed Fort Victoria again in honor of the Queen of England. However, the citadel was far from the East India Company's trade routes and its location was no longer of strategic importance and the British, seeing no benefit to their interests, left the citadel.

Kavaledurga Fort
Kavaledurga Fort - located in the Western Ghats at an altitude of 1541 meters, 18 kilometers from the city of Tertaholli (Karnataka State). The citadel was the fortress of the Keladi Nayaks, who were vassals of the rulers of the Vijayanagar Empire. The construction of the fortress dates back to the 9th century, in the 14th century the defensive structures were revised and easily rebuilt. The fortress is located on a hill and is surrounded by three rows of walls that repeat the offices of the hill. The almost nine-meter high walls are made of large blocks of granite, and watchtowers have been erected in some places. Inside the citadel there were 15 temples (only three have survived to this day), the ruler's palace, various supply and storage facilities (granaries, an arsenal, stalls for elephants and horses) and numerous reservoirs and pools. Only a few parts of the fortress walls and three small temples remain from the former large fortress, all other buildings are in ruins, which were destroyed by the conquerors or by time

Gudibande Fort
It is believed that the fortress was built by Robin Hood - Byre Gowda almost 400 years ago in the 17th century. The fort has a seven-tier system of defensive structures connected by passages for the movement of troops. Main feature The fort is a system for collecting rainwater. For this purpose, 19 reservoirs of different sizes were cut down in the rock at different levels of fortification. In most of the high point fortress there is a temple dedicated to Shiva which is highly revered by the locals

Gingee gone
160 kilometers from Chennai, the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu, is a well-preserved example of the military engineering of ancient India - Fort Gingi (Senji). This is one of the most heavily fortified fortresses in India at the time. The Maratha ruler Shivaji rated it "the most impregnable fortress in India" and the British called it "Troy of the East". The 15th-16th Built in the 18th century, the fortress consists of three citadels, which are located separately on the tops of neighboring hills. The fortifications on the hills are connected by walls, the total length of which is about 13 kilometers. In the 11 square kilometers large fortifications there are granaries, prison cells, shrines and temples as well as several reservoirs for water storage. The main attraction of the fortress is the eight-story, 27-meter-high tower with a pyramidal top - Kalyana Mahal. The old "skyscraper" was built in the Indo-Islamic style, there is only one large room on each floor and it is also equipped with a sophisticated water supply system on the upper floors.

Republic of India (Hindi भारत गणराज्य , Bhārat Gaṇarājyaclosely. Republic of India) is a state in South Asia. India occupies seventh in the world by area, the second most populous and most democratic country in the world by population. India borders Pakistan to the west, China, Nepal and Bhutan to the northeast, and Bangladesh and Myanmar to the east. In addition, India has maritime borders with the Maldives in the southwest, Sri Lanka in the south and Indonesia in the southeast. The disputed area of ​​the state of Jammu and Kashmir borders Afghanistan.

India is home to Indus Valley Civilization and other ancient civilizations. India has been the center of important trade routes for most of its history and is known for its wealth and high culture.

Religions such as Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism have their origins in India. In the first millennium AD, Zoroastrianism, Judaism, Christianity and Islam also came to the Indian subcontinent, greatly influencing the formation of a diverse culture in the region.

In the period from the early 18th century to the mid-19th century, India was gradually colonized by the British Empire. After gaining independence in 1947, the country made great strides in economic and military development. By the end of the 20th century, India's economy was one of the fastest growing in the world. In terms of nominal volume of gross domestic product, India ranks 12th worldwide and fourth in terms of purchasing power parity. The high levels of poverty and illiteracy in the population remain a pressing problem.

Historical summary:

The first traces of their presence on the territory of India (paleotic chopper of the Soan culture in Punjab) date from the 2nd interglacial period more than 100,000 years ago. (Northern India, like Europe, experienced ice ages).

Around the same time, there was also a culture called Madras in southern India.

The cradle of the entire Indian - the Ganges valley, as is believed, did not exist at the time - there was a shallow sea.

The oldest evidence of sedentary agricultural cultures - settlements - were discovered in Balochistan and Sindh and date back to 4000 BC. In those days the climate in India, especially in the northwest, was significantly different - much more humid. The entire Indus basin was covered with forests; Now the almost waterless Balochistan was irrigated by deep rivers, which made the existence of numerous agricultural tribes possible. The residents of the settlements lived in adobe houses, made high-quality ceramics and already used metal. Their religious views were in many ways similar to the beliefs of other farming communities in the Near and Middle East associated with the cult of fertility and the mother goddess.

HARAPPIAN CIVILIZATION

In three thousand BC The so-called Harappan civilization takes shape in the Indus Valley - so named after its modern name, a settlement on the left bank of the river. Rvi in ​​Punjab, where one of the greatest cities of this civilization was once located. The second famous city of this civilization - Mahenjo-Daro - is located on the right bank of the Indus, about 400 km away. out of his mouth. Another city belonging to this civilization has been found in Kalibangan, near the India-Pakistan border, at the mouth of the ancient Saraswati River (now almost dry). A large number of smaller towns and settlements are also known. In general, the Harappan civilization occupied a vast area, even by modern standards - about 1,500 km from north to south.

Mahenjo-Daro and Harappi are said to have originated in the middle of the 3rd millennium BC. and existed at least in the 2nd millennium BC It is obvious that even then these cities had contact with the civilizations of Mesopotamia. The Harappan civilization was most likely theocratic, that is, it was ruled by priests.

Both cities were built on a similar plan - a citadel with battlements and public buildings inside, around which was a city of more than a square kilometer. Perfectly straight streets divided the city into quarters. The building materials for the buildings were usually extremely high quality baked bricks.

Houses with a height of 2 stories were also built according to the same plan - a series of rooms around a rectangular courtyard. The entrance to the house was usually not from the street but from a side street; All the windows looked out onto the courtyard.

The houses had ablution rooms - a kind of "bathtub" with a system of drainage pipes that led to the city sewer. The city sewers ran under the streets and were covered with special tile panels.

One of the oldest swimming pools in the world with a size of 11 x 7 m was opened in Mahenjo-Daro.

In Harappi, north of the citadel, a large granary measuring 45 x 60 m was discovered. Studies show that the main crops of the Harappan civilization were wheat and barley. Buffalo, goats, sheep, pigs, donkeys, dogs and various poultry have already been tamed.

To the surprise of the archaeologists, none of the structures in Mahenjo-Daro and Harappi could be identified as temples.

There was already a written language that was most likely pictographic in nature and comprised around 270 characters. Many of these signs are depicted on seals found during excavations. Unfortunately, despite all attempts, the writing of the Harap civilization has not yet been deciphered.

Around 1500 BC A powerful earthquake struck that destroyed many cities of the Harappan civilization, and yet invaders from the west invaded the Indus Valley, which eventually destroyed this culture. There is still no firm opinion as to whether they were already Aryan tribes or earlier conquerors.

There are numerous theories about the origin of the Aryans. If we try to summarize the most reasonable of them, we can say that around 2000 B.C. BC Somewhere on the territory of modern Ukraine lived barbaric tribes: rather tall, fair-skinned people. They were almost the first in the world to tame and lace horses to light high-speed cars with spokes. These tribes were mainly concerned with raising livestock and a little bit of agriculture.

At the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC For some reason (overpopulation? Drought?), These tribes set in motion and then settled large areas from Ireland in the west to India in the east. They conquered the local peoples and mingled with them to form the ruling elite.

The Aryan invasion of India was not a one-off operation but a process that spanned hundreds of years. This period in the history of India is known as Aryan or Vedic. During this time the greatest monuments of Indian and world culture were created - the poetic epics "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana". (However, there are opinions that these ancient epics were created much earlier - around 6,000,000 years before Christ, i.e. when the Aryans still lived in their ancestral home).

The Aryans did not create an urban civilization, the economic basis of their existence was shepherds and agriculture, a very important place in the economy was occupied by cattle. The horse was also exclusively very important in the life of the Aryans but was mainly used for military purposes.

In the Vedic era, the main goods (castes) were formed. The family, which was the basic unit of Aryan society, is strictly patriarchal, marriage is monogamous and indissoluble. Numerous finds from the excavation of dice testify to the Aryans' passion for gambling. They also loved intoxicating drinks (Soma and Sure).

The material culture of the Aryans reached a high level of development. They mastered the art of bronze processing, made weapons and tools from it (it should be noted that old copper mines were found in the alleged ancestral home of the Aryans).

LATE VEDIC PERIOD

About 5 centuries passed between the Aryan invasion of the Indus Valley and the age of Buddha. During this time the Aryans moved further east down the Ganges, their culture adapted to the local conditions. New kingdoms arose in the east and later played a significant role in Indian history.Many scholars believe that "Mahabharata" and "Ramayana" reflect the events that took place during that time. There are still too many puzzles here, however - and it is still impossible to definitively confirm or date anything.

THE AGE OF BUDDHA. MAGADHO-MAURI STATE.

In the era later known as the era of Buddha, the center of Indian civilization moves east. Four kingdoms are emerging here that are reaching their heyday: Koshala, Magadha, Vatsa and Avanti, which dwarfed the ancient land of Kuru in Punjab, both economically and politically. Middle of the 1st millennium BC Does one of them - Magadha - actually manage to create the first Indian empire, whose possessions included the entire Ganges basin and almost all of northern India with the exception of Rajasthan, Sindh and Punjab.

Around 326, after conquering the Achaemenid Persian Empire and marching into Bactria, Alexander the Great conquered the Hindu Kush and invaded India. Alexander's troops cross the Indus and enter the Punjab. Alexander defeats the troops of Punjabi King Pora and begins an offensive inland, but is forced to turn back under threat of mutiny among his troops.

After the death of Alexander, one of Alexander's military commanders, Seleucus, Nicator fell in 305 BC. In India, but was apparently defeated by the emperor of the Magadho-Maurysuk state Chandraguta.

Around 269 BC Ashoka became the emperor - later one of India's greatest rulers. According to Buddhist sources, Ashoka took the throne illegally, killing all sorts of rivals and ruling as a tyrant, but eight years after acceding to the throne, the king became a completely different person, morally and spiritually, and began to pursue a new policy. He gave up the usual territorial expansion and his internal politics were relaxed considerably. He banned the sacrifice of animals and even replaced the traditional amusement of Indian kings - hunting - with pilgrimages to Buddhist shrines.

According to tradition, Sri Lanka converted to Buddhism thanks to the son (brother?) Of Ashoka - Mahendra (Mahinda).

Emperor Ashoka died around 232 BC. BC, apparently by this point he had lost power. Ashoka's heirs ruled India for about 50 years.

The age of invasion

183 BC Power following a palace coup seized by Pushyamitra Shunga, one of the military commanders of the last Moorish king, Brihadrahti. The new king returns to the old Hindu religion. There is a gradual "erosion" of the Moorish kingdom - many principalities deviate from it and become independent.

At that time the independent Hellenistic states of Bactria and Parthia were formed on the north-western borders of India as a result of the collapse of the Seleucid Empire. The Bactrian Greeks begin their expansion into northwest India. They take over most of the Indus Valley and Punjab and storm far into the Ganges Valley. As a result, this Greek state in northwest India breaks up into tiny Greco-Bactrian kingdoms.

In the 2nd century. BC Hordes of nomads from Central Asia (known as Yuezhi from Chinese sources) moved west, pushing the Scythians. The Scythians attacked Bactria under pressure from the north and conquered it. They then defeated Parthia and the Greek kingdoms in northwest India, under pressure from the same nomads. The power of the Scythians (Sakas, Shaks) extended to Mathura. The earliest known Scythian king to rule India was Maues (80 BC?).

In 1 century. AD Kunjuly Kajiva of the Yuezhi Kushan tribe concentrated power over Bactria in his hands and then succeeded in conquering northwestern India. One of his followers, Kanishka, manages to concentrate power over a significant part of Central Asia and northwest India (as far as Varanasi) in his hands. Under Kanishka, Buddhism began to invade Central Asia and the Far East.

Kanishka's successors ruled northwest India until the middle of the 3rd century when King Vasudeva was defeated by Shapur I, a representative of the new Iranian Sassanid dynasty. Northwest India is under Iranian influence.

In 1 century. BC - 4 c. Several new kingdoms (Orissa, the kingdom of the Satavahans) are emerging on the Deccan Peninsula and have existed for several hundred years.

In the south of India in Tamil Nadu there are several Tamil states at this time. Good sailors, Tamils ​​invade the island. Lanka and catch it a northern part for a while ... Tamils ​​had close trade ties with Egypt and the Roman Empire.

THE AGE OF THE GUPTS

In 320 A.D. in the history of India, Chandra Gupta appears, whose descendants largely restored the power of the Moorish Empire.

Under his successor Samudragupta (c. 335-376), a great empire was once again created in India, stretching from Assam to the borders of the Punjab. The Shaks (descendants of the Scythians) who ruled northwest India manage to shake the Gupsky Empire, but in 338 Chandra Gupta II eventually defeated the Shaks.

At the end of the reign of Kumaragupta I (415-454), north-west India was reoccupied by northern nomads, known from Byzantine sources as the Huns.

His son Scanlagupta (approx. 455-467) succeeded in rebuilding the empire.

Late 5th century. The Huns moved to India again and by 500 the West Indies were in the hands of the Hun kings. In 530 Narasinhgupta drives out the Huns, but in 550 the Gupta empire ceases to exist.

As a result of Harsha (606-647) from a subsidiary branch of the Gupta dynasty, he regained control of a large part of the empire from Gujarat to Bengal.

After the death of Harsha, a great riot begins. - the incessant alternation of disputes between local dynasties. In 812 the Arabs conquered Sindh.

In 986 the emir from the Afghan city of Hansa, Sabuktigin, undertook the first raid on northwest India. From 997, his son Mahmud began systematic campaigns against the rich Indian kingdoms.

The alliance of Indian kings organized to repel Mahmud was defeated near Peshawar in 1001. By 1027 Mahmud annexed all north-western regions and the Punjab as well as the Arab state of Sindh to his state.

THE AGE OF THE GREAT MOHOLS

The Mahmud dynasty in Afghanistan was replaced by a new dynasty. One of their representatives, known as Muhammad Guri, continued the conquest of the Hindu states. His commander Qutb ud-din Aybak occupied Delhi, another commander Muhammad ibn-Bakhtiyar went down the Ganges and devastated Bihar, then occupied Bengal with almost no resistance. Since the beginning of the 13th century. and up to the 18th century. Muslim conquerors dominated northern India. In 1206 Muhammad ibn-Bakhtiyar was killed and his commander Qutb-ud-Din, a freedman, became the first sultan of Delhi. It was Qutb-un-Din who laid the foundation stone for the Delhi Sultanate (1206-1526). During the existence of the Delhi Sultanate, several dynasties were replaced: Gulams (1206-1290), Khilji (1290-1320), Tughlaka (1320-1413), Sayyids (1414-1451), Lodi (1451-1526). During the reign of Muhammad Tughlak, they managed to conquer virtually all of India with the exception of the south and Kashmir.
In 1398 the Delhi Sultanate was attacked by Timur, the ruler of Samarkand. Towards the end of the 16th century, the sultanate began to break up into separate parts. it only included Delhi and its immediate vicinity.
In the 15-16 centuries. In South India there was the Hindu Vijainagar Empire and the Muslim Bahmanid Empire.

In 1498 the Portuguese first appeared off the coast of India and began to gain a foothold on the west coast.

At the beginning of the 16th century. A new powerful empire is taking shape on the ruins of the Delhi Sultanate, founded by a Babur from Central Asia. In 1526 he invaded India. At the Battle of Panipat he defeated Ibrahim Lodi's troops and ascended the throne of Delhi. This is how the Great Mughals' state was founded.

Originally the empire of the Great Mughals was limited to the interaction of Ganges and Janma, but under Babur's grandson Akbar (1556-1505) all of northern and central India and Afghanistan were conquered.

The first British ambassador to India came during the reign of Akbar's son Jahangir (1605-1627).

Akbar's grandson Shahjahan (ruled 1628-1658) moved the capital from Delhi to Agra.

The last of the great Mughals, the son of Shahjahan Aurangzeb (1658-1707), ascended the throne and imprisoned his father in the Red Fort of Agra. After Aurangzeb's death, the Mughal Empire collapsed.

ARRIVAL OF EUROPEANS

Vasco da Gama, the first European to travel to India, landed in the area of ​​the modern city of Calcutta in 1498.

In 1600 the British East India Company was founded. Her first ship arrived in India in 1608.
In 1613 the company was granted commercial law by decree of Emperor Jahangir.
In 1640 the company was placed on the east coast of Fort of India in the area of ​​the modern city of Madras.
In 1668 the company bought the island of Bombay on the west coast of India for £ 10, where a trading post was established.
In 1690 Calcutta was founded on the site of a village that had been transferred to the company.
Gradually, the East India Company takes control of the entire Ganges Delta.
As a result of several Anglo-Mysore Wars in 1799, Mysore and Hyderabad in southern India were annexed. At the beginning of the 19th century. Conquered by Maharashtra in 1829 - Assam 1843 - Are 1849 - Punjab. In the middle of the 19th century. Virtually all of India fell under the rule of the British Crown.

In 1857 a powerful Sipai uprising (Sipai - Indians who served in the Anglo-Indian army) broke out, known as the first Indian War of Independence. The uprising was suppressed, but Britain revised its policy towards India. In 1858 the East India Company was liquidated and India became the property (colony) of the British Empire.

Colonial rule over Great Britain lasted until 1947. Resistance to British rule has long existed and has grown in scope since the 1920s. In 1947 Great Britain was forced to grant India independence. Under this law, two rulers are created on the British India site - India and Pakistan. Pakistan comprises the predominantly Muslim western and eastern regions of India. Later (1971) the eastern regions separated from Pakistan and the state of Bangladesh were proclaimed here.

INDEPENDENT INDIA

  • On January 26, India became an independent sovereign republic.
  • In 1951, the country held its first general election.
  • In 1954 India annexed the French colony of Pondicherry.
  • In 1961 India became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In the same year the Portuguese colonies Goa, Daman, Diu were added to India.