# What is the use of space heating

## Space heating: calculation, types of heating and costs

There is now a large selection of different heating systems: A room heating system can be implemented as a conventional gas heating system, and electrical systems are also available that heat the rooms with high efficiency. In any case, the required heating power must be calculated in advance in order to dimension the size and power of the heater. What should be taken into account here?

Regardless of the question of which type of room heating is used, the heating requirement must first be determined. This is understood to be the thermal energy that has to be supplied by the heater because it is lost through windows and exterior walls. From this consideration it can already be seen that the performance of space heating is closely linked to thermal insulation.

### This is how you can calculate the space heating

Q = U * A * (Ti - Ta)

Q = heating power in watts
A = room size in square meters
Ti = desired internal temperature in ° C
Ta = outside temperature in ° C
U = heat transfer coefficient

The following information should be used for the unitless heat transfer coefficient U:

U = 4 no insulation
U = 3 old buildings
U = 2.2 buildings from year of construction 1970
U = 1.2 Well-insulated new buildings

### Solar space heating reduces energy consumption

Based on this information, the required heating power can be calculated both simply and very precisely. This value is completely independent of the heating system used - it does not matter how this output is generated. Even today, one option is conventional heating that runs on gas. The main advantage of the solid and simple technology is the low cost.

• In order to heat a single-family house with a living space of around 150 m², the boiler needs around 3,500 euros be taken into account. In addition, there are costs for accessories and the necessary infrastructure such as a gas connection and the costs for installation by a heating installer.
• The advantages of this system are in particular the low investment costs. With an integrated solar thermal system, the costs increase to around 11,000 euros, but the operating costs for solar room heating are reduced by around 30%.

With solar panels on the roof, you can use the sun's energy to support the water heating - which, on the other hand, works surprisingly well even when the sky is overcast. There is a large selection of these conventional heating systems; many established manufacturers such as Viessmann, Wolf-Heiztechnik, Buderus or Junkers have corresponding systems in their range.

• The annual gas costs for a 4-person household and a free-standing building are around 1500 Euro can therefore be good 500 euro to reduce.

### When does electric space heating make sense?

Due to the low energy efficiency and the resulting poor ecological balance, the spread of electric heating has tended to decrease in recent years. While the partially solar room heating only heats the water and supplies it to a conventional system, with the electrical heating the electricity is converted into heat in various ways.

The particular advantage is that this system radiates heat like the sun. This warms you and the objects in the room, less the air. Most people find this radiant heat to be much more pleasant, especially since the loss of heat is reduced, heating takes place faster overall, and there is no dust swirl to complain about. Therefore, despite the low energy efficiency, electric heaters are still used today, for example in the form of infrared heaters. However, this less as central heating, but much more as support for another non-electrical heating system.

One advantage that electrical heating options such as night storage heaters bring with them are the low investment costs: a radiator with an output of 500 W is for just once 300 Euro available. Compared to conventional heating, the costs are therefore considerably lower. A comparatively large amount of electricity is used for this. In order to operate a 500 W heater daily with an assumed 9-hour operating time, an assumed electricity price of 29 cents per kilowatt hour of electricity costs of 480 euros annually - in a single room.

This means that infrared heating is hardly suitable for heating an entire house. As an additional spot for pleasant warmth (infrared radiation is perceived as very pleasant by many people), this system is well worth considering - especially if you like it cozy.