What is a forest model

What is forest?

Ecological definition:

The trees are an important unit in the forest community. But a collection of trees does not constitute a forest ecosystem, nor a forest in the narrower sense. Only when trees are so dense and numerous that a typical forest interior climate develops (the temperatures are more balanced, the air movements and the light intensity are lower and the humidity higher), one speaks of a forest. A park landscape is therefore not a forest.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN (FAO) speaks of a forest when the trees are at least three meters high in winter cold areas and at least seven meters in a temperate climate and at least 10% of the soil is covered by treetops.

And now the legal definition:

In Section 2 of the Federal Forest Act, forest is defined as follows:
For the purposes of this law, forest is any area covered with forest plants. Forests also include cleared or cleared areas, forest paths, forest dividing and safety strips, forest ponds and clearings, forest meadows, deforestation areas, wood storage areas and other areas connected to and used by the forest.

Requirement for forests

For their existence, forests need a certain minimum amount of precipitation, depending on the temperature. If there is less precipitation, the forest turns into a dry savannah or steppe.
For high altitudes and cold climates, the length of the vegetation period is decisive for the success of the forest. Above a certain height or geographical latitude there is a tree line beyond which no forest can grow and only a few (crippled) trees appear. The tree line follows it.
Forests are complex ecosystems. With optimal resource utilization, they are the most productive terrestrial ecosystem. After the oceans, they are the most important influencing factor of the global climate. Compared to other forms of use, they represent the only effective CO2 sink globally and are the most important oxygen producers. They have a balancing effect on the global balance of matter. Their biodiversity is an invaluable gene pool, the importance of which is increasingly being recognized in industry.