What are the industries in petroleum technology

Branches of petroleum engineering

During the development of petroleum technology, a number of specialist areas developed: drilling technology, production technology and surface engineering, reservoir technology and petrophysics. Within these four areas are subsets of specialist engineers, including some from other disciplines-such as mechanical, civil, electrical, geological, geophysical, and chemical engineering. The petroleum engineer's unique job is to integrate all specializations into one efficient system for oil and gas drilling, production and processing.

The drilling technique was one of the first applications of the technology in oil field practice. The drilling engineer is responsible for designing earth penetration techniques, selecting housing and safety equipment, and often directing operations. These functions include understanding the type of rocks to be penetrated, the stresses in those rocks, and the techniques available to drill and control the underground reservoirs. Because drilling involves organizing a multitude of service companies, machines and materials, investing huge resources, and working with local governments and communities in recognition of the safety and well-being of the public, the engineer needs to develop the skills of supervision, management and negotiation.

The work of production engineers and surface facility engineers begins after the well is completed. You determine the selection of the production intervals and make arrangements for various accessories, controls and devices. Later, the jobs of these engineers include controlling and measuring the fluids produced (oil, gas, and water), designing and installing collection and storage systems, and delivering the raw products (gas and oil) to pipeline companies and other transportation agents. These engineers also deal with issues such as corrosion protection, well performance, and formation treatments to stimulate production. As in all areas of petroleum engineering, manufacturing engineers and surface equipment engineers cannot view those in holes or surface finishing problems in isolation, but solutions must fit into the complete container, well, and the surface system, and thus they must work together with both the drilling and reservoir engineers.

Reservoir engineers study the physics of oil and gas distribution and their flow through porous rocks - the various hydrodynamic, thermodynamic, gravitational, and other forces involved in the rock fluid system. You will be responsible for analyzing the rock fluid system, creating efficient drainage patterns, predicting the performance of the oil or gas storage facility and implementing methods for maximum efficient production.

To understand the reservoir rock fluid system, the drilling, production, and reservoir engineers are assisted by the petrophysical or formation evaluation engineer who provides tools and analytical techniques to determine rock and fluid properties. The petrophysical engineer measures the acoustic, radioactive and electrical properties of the rock fluid system and takes samples of the rocks and borehole fluids to determine the porosity, permeability and fluid content in the reservoir.

While each of these four special areas has individual technical tasks, complex reservoirs are currently only being developed through integrated geoscientific and petroleum engineering efforts. For example, the process of reservoir characterization, also known as developing a static model of the reservoir, is a collaboration between geophysicists, statisticians, petrophysicists, geologists, and reservoir engineers to map the reservoir and determine its geological structure, stratigraphy, and deposition. The use of statistics helps transform the static model into a dynamic model by smoothing out the trends and uncertainties that appear in the gaps in the static model. The dynamic model is used by the reservoir engineer and reservoir simulation engineer, with the assistance of geoscientists, to determine the volume of the reservoir based on its fluid properties, reservoir pressures and temperatures, and any existing borehole data. The output of the dynamic model is typically a production forecast for oil, water and gas with a breakdown of the associated development and operating costs that will be incurred during the life of the project. The dynamic model is used to create various production scenarios to ensure that all possible outcomes are achieved - including improved recovery, subsurface stimulation, changes in product prices and infrastructure changes, and the site's ultimate abandonment are taken into account. Iterative input from the various members of the engineering and geosciences team, from initial geological assessments to final reservoir predictions of the reserves generated by the simulator, help minimize uncertainties and risks in oil and gas development.