What are some unsolved problems in physics
What do we not know?
1. What is the universe made of?
2. And where does the raw material for the Big Bang come from?
3. Why do we live on drifting continental plates such as can only be found on earth?
4. How did life come about?
5. Did life arise elsewhere in the universe?
6. And who broadcast the radio signal that astrophysicist Jerry R. Ehman recorded on August 15, 1977, and which impressed him so much that he wrote “Wow!” Next to it in red letters?
7. What should the recorded wow message with the content "6EQUJ5" mean?
8. And what color is the sender?
9. What color were the dinosaurs?
10. And why were they so big?
11. How did people rise above animals?
12. What role did culture play in this?
13. What if it wasn't culture, but just a small, random mutation that grew the brain and gave our ancestors the edge?
14. Why do humans only have about 25,000 genes and thus hardly more than the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans?
15. And range the 302 neurons and 6400 chemical
Synapses of the nematode for a rudimentary consciousness, as neurologist Cornelia Bargmann suspects?
16. Can machines have consciousness?
17. What is consciousness anyway?
18. Why is there sexual reproduction with two sexes,
if it reduces evolutionary fitness by 50 percent compared to asexual reproduction, as practiced by the nematode and many other living things?
19. Did the Neanderthals only become extinct because, unlike Homo sapiens, they were reluctant to reproduce?
20. Why do male rats who wear polyester trousers mate significantly less frequently than rats in cotton trousers? 21. And does that also apply to people?
22. How does the probably biggest act in the world take place, the so far never observed mating of the blue whales?
23. Why are felt truths having such great success recently?
24. When knowledge is based on true facts, something belongs
even then to knowledge when we have formed a true opinion by inferring from false premises, as the philosopher Edmund Gettier doubts?
25. Why do all living things age?
26. How much can we increase our life expectancy?
27. And why can the sponge Anoxycalyx joubini live to be 10,000 years old and only seem to die as a result of accidents?
28. Why must
29. And, if anything, how do aging and dying depend
30. Why do Mormons or Seventh-day Adventists who believe in fulfilling lives after death peak in life expectancy?
31. And why is the probability of death for rock stars particularly high in the first five years of their careers?
32. How is it that a child who can hardly see, speak or walk after birth, invents stories, does arithmetic, swims and rides a bicycle five years later?
33. And why does our brain no longer learn at this speed in old age?
34. How can the Birch-Swinnerton-Dyer conjecture about the rank of elliptic curves be proven, which is the first of seven “Millennium Problems” in mathematics, for the solution of which the Clay Mathematical Institute (CMI) receives a prize money of one million US dollars each?
35. According to the second Millennium Problem of Mathematics, can the substructures of high-dimensional figures be described by polynomial equations, as suggested by William Vallance Douglas Hodge?
36. According to the third Millennium Problem, how can the Navier-Stokes equations on currents, eddies and turbulence be solved, which could lead to better wind tunnels for cars and finally to accurate weather reports?
37. Do problems really exist for which solutions can be easily checked, but unfortunately finding such a solution is extremely difficult, as described by the P / NP problem, the fourth puzzle of the century?
38. How can the fifth millennium problem, the distribution of prime numbers assumed by the mathematician Bernhard Riemann as early as 1850, be proven?
39. Is it really true, according to the sixth mystery of the century, that the so-called Yang-Mills equations for describing elementary particles for particles with a small mass are incomplete, as experiments suggest?
40. And why did the mathematician Grigori Perelman, who succeeded in solving the seventh millennium problem, the proof of the Poincaré conjecture, reject first the Fields Medal and then the prize money of the CMI and sat down in one Suburb of Moscow to rest?
41. Why do we help each other?
42. And why do we not help each other much more often?
43. Why is there altruism when it does
so-called Darwin fitness decreased?
44. Does it make sense to put people in jail?
45. Can there be everlasting peace?
46. And do we need more or fewer weapons for that?
47. Why do the poor stay poor and the rich rich?
48. Why do markets fail?
49. And why are state interventions after a market
fail so rarely successfully?
50. Why doesn't digital technology make us more productive?
51. Why do we keep making the same mistakes?
52. How is a language created?
53. How is the grammar of a language created?
54. And why does no language have a grammar that is perfectly logical in itself?
55. Why do we make music?
56. Does beauty have rules? 57. Are flights to Mars possible?
58. Are time travel possible?
59. Why are we going on vacation?
60. What will we replace oil with?
61. And how can we replace crude oil with renewable raw materials without endangering biodiversity even more?
62. By how many degrees will the global climate warm up?
63. How resistant are the oceans to chemical pollution?
64. Why must
65. And why are we dreaming?
66. If we got rid of sleep,
would we miss dreaming?
67. Why does anesthesia work?
68. Can one get infected with cancer?
69. What happened in the body of Timothy Brown, who was HIV-infected and suffering from leukemia and who, after a stem cell transplant, not only got rid of blood cancer, but also became the first person in the world to get rid of the HIV virus?
70. And is Brown's cure the key to a new HIV therapy?
71. Can it really be that Susumu Shimoura from the University of Tokyo last year produced a tetraneutron, a particle that consists of four neutrons, although this contradicts the accepted models of nuclear physics?
72. Can the laws of physics be universally generalized?
73. How do the cuckoos manage to arrive exactly where they left off at the end of a 16,000-kilometer sightseeing flight that takes them from Europe to Africa and back again?
74. How do eels living in Europe find their way back to their spawning area south of the Bermuda Islands after 20 years?
75. And how do the goats on Vesuvius know about the danger six hours before an outbreak and thus earlier than sensitive measuring instruments?
76. Why can the basilisks, called the Jesus Christ lizard, walk over water?
77. Why can we walk over frozen water?
78. And what is the exact structure of the water anyway?
79. How can everyone have access to clean water without conflict?
80. What is the meaning of life?
81. If we were happier
if we knew the answer?
82. When we are in business between cell phones
have to decide that we can all afford, are we really going to buy what we want most?
83. If we want to decide between two cell phones in business, why do the properties of a third device that is not available for selection influence our purchase decision?
84. Does God exist?
85. If we have observed 10,000 sunrises, what is the statistical probability that the sun will rise tomorrow?
86. And why do we find it so difficult to understand whether a probability of 99.990002 percent for the next sunrise, as calculated by the French mathematician Pierre Simon de Laplace, would now be good news or bad news for individuals?
87. What happened on the two-masted sailing ship "Mary Celeste", which was found floating in the Atlantic in 1872 halfway between the Azores and Portugal without a crew?
88. What happened to the Boeing 777 of Malaysia Airlines Flight 370 with 239 people on board, which disappeared from air traffic control on March 8, 2014 at 1:21 am?
89. How many people live on earth?
90. If in the year 2100 there were actually 11.2 billion people
would, as the United Nations estimate, could the earth feed them?
91. And if in the year 2100 there were only 56.9 million people living in Germany, as the United Nations estimates, who will do all the work?
92. How can one protect democracies from becoming authoritarian regimes?
93. How can a country ruled by totalitarianism become another
Become a democracy?
94. How can education enable humanity to solve global problems?
95. Was Pharaoh Tutankhamun killed?
96. And then why was he so carefully embalmed for a next life?
97. Will the American psychology professor James Bedford ever give lectures again after he became the first person to be cryopreserved in liquid nitrogen after his death on January 12, 1967 in order to be resuscitated in the future?
98. And if Bedford could actually be resuscitated, how do you thaw him without damaging the proteins in his body cells?
99. And what about the kidney cancer from which he died?
100. Will the universe after the
Will the Big Bang pull together again at some point and everything will end in a Big Crunch?
101. Or will the sun turn into a red giant beforehand, so that in 900 million years it will be so hot that no higher life is possible?
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