Hotspot is an example for ISP

WiFi hotspot

A WLAN hotspot is a technical device that offers public Internet access via wireless LAN to the Internet.
The hotspot consists of a WLAN router which, on the one hand, contains a WLAN access point for the radio network and, on the other hand, uses the router unit to establish the broadband connection, e.g. via ADSL or SDSL to the ISP (Internet Service Provider). You can then access the worldwide Internet via the ISP. In addition to the technical requirements for Internet access, a unit for billing the chargeable access is connected to the router. This unit for authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) is the basis for the hotspot operator to receive money from the user for the service provided.

A local and independent hotspot operator either offers its Internet access free of charge or bills its customers directly via a specially allocated user access. This isolated solution has the disadvantage for the user that he has to ask for the login data every time he accesses the hotspot and has to pay again for it.

WISP - Wireless Internet Service Provider

Nationwide Wireless Internet Service Providers (WISP) take over the installation and operation of a hotspot on site. They connect the hotspots to their own network. The unit for authentication, authorization and accounting (AAA) is also located there, centrally connected. This results in several advantages for the user. With his personal login data he gets access to the internet at every hotspot. The requirement of the hotspot belongs to his WISP.
After the user has authenticated himself, access to the Internet is enabled for him. Billing is not done locally, but centrally at one point and can then be billed monthly based on time or volume. As a special service, the WISP can offer free access to an intranet in order to present advertising for its services and products.

Roaming and Billing

Public WiFi hotspots as a general access option are springing up like mushrooms. In metropolitan areas there are hardly any public facilities such as airports, hotels, train stations and restaurants without WLAN somewhere. Nice for the user. So he has access to the Internet almost everywhere. The different billing methods are less attractive. Here the WLAN hotspot of a national wireless Internet service provider (WISP) with central billing, there a restaurant or cafe with its own independent hotspot and local billing and sometimes just an open WLAN without access restrictions. However, this messy billing is anything but user-friendly. It takes a long time for the user to even gain access to the Internet
What the WLAN user wants is cashless and central billing for WLAN services at any WLAN hotspot. The basis for billing is an account that is settled via the telephone, cell phone or ISP bill. This requires roaming and billing across all hotspots with all WLAN hotspot providers and Internet service providers (ISPs).

Either all ISPs and WISPs merge or an independent WISP platform is established that is exclusively responsible for accounting and billing. Specifically, it looks like the user has a user account on this WISP platform. With his login data he can log in to the local login page of a hotspot. The hotspot reports the registration to the WISP platform. There the data is checked and the user activated. Depending on the billing method, the hotspot transmits the amount of data or the connection time to the WISP platform. The WISP platform settles accounts with the ISPs / WISPs and the user at regular intervals.
The easy handling of the Internet access via WLAN for the user is important. This is the only way to achieve a high level of user acceptance and thus a high level of market penetration.

Tasks and exercises with the Raspberry Pi

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