What is the full form of MPATGM

FGM-148 spear - FGM-148 Javelin

American portable anti-tank missile
FGM-148 spear
Art Anti-tank missile
place of origin United States
Service history
In service 1996 - today
Used by Please refer Operators
Wars
Production history
Designer Texas Instruments and Martin Marietta
(now Raytheon and Lockheed Martin)
Designed June 1989
Manufacturer Raytheon and Lockheed Martin
Cost per unit US $ 175,203 (rocket only, GJ2021)
Produced 1996 - today
No built 45,000 missiles (12,000 CLUs)
Specifications
Dimensions 22.3 kg: (ready to fire)
6.4 kg: Detachable Command Starter Unit (CLU)
15.9 kg: rocket in the launch tube
length Missile: 1.1 m (43 in)
Launch tube: 1.2 m (47 in)
diameter Missile: 127 mm (5.0 in)
Launch tube: 142 mm (5.6 in)
crew 2

Effective shooting range Original CLU: 2,500 m
Easy CLU: 4,000 m
From the vehicle: 4,750 m
Warhead Tandem charge HEAT
Warhead weight 8.4 kg
Impact force
Jet yield Penetration: 750mm + RHA
600mm + RHA behind ERA

engine Solid fuel missile
Infrared reference run

The FGM-148 Javelin is an American man-portable fire-and-forget anti-tank missile fielded that will replace M47 Dragon anti-tank missiles in US service. It uses automatic infrared guidance that allows the user to seek cover immediately after launch, unlike wire-guided systems like the kite, which require the user to wield the weapon throughout the deployment. The spear's HEAT warhead can defeat modern tanks by hitting them from above where their armor is thinnest (see top attack). It is also useful against fortifications in a direct attack flight. As of January 2019, over 5,000 spear missiles had been fired in combat.

overview

Javelin is a fire-and-forgetful missile with pre-launch lock-on and automatic self-guidance. The system creates a top attack flight profile against armored vehicles (attacking the top armor, which is generally thinner), but can also use a direct attack mode for use against buildings, targets within the minimum top attack attack area, and targets under obstacles. The missile can also use helicopters in direct attack mode. It can reach a peak height of 150 m (500 ft) in top attack mode and 60 m (190 ft) in direct fire mode. It is equipped with an imaging infrared viewfinder. The tandem warhead is equipped with two shaped charges: a precursor warhead for detonating explosive reactive armor and a primary warhead for penetrating the basic armor.

The rocket is ejected from the launcher so that it is a safe distance from the operator before the main rocket motors ignite - a "soft launch" arrangement. This makes it harder to identify the launcher. Recoil from the launch tube still poses a threat to nearby personnel. Thanks to this "fire-and-forget" system, the firing team can change position as soon as the missile is fired, or prepare for the next one Shoot the target while the first missile is in the air.

The missile system is mostly carried by a two-person team consisting of a shooter and an ammunition carrier, although it can be fired with just one person if necessary. As the gunner aims and fires the missile, the ammunition carrier searches for potential targets, looks for threats such as enemy vehicles and troops, and ensures personnel and obstacles are clear of the missile's explosion.

development

In 1983 the U.S. Army introduced its Advanced Anti-Tank Weapon System - Medium (AAWS-M) requirement, and in 1985 the AAWS-M was approved for development. In August 1986, the Proof-of-Principle (POP) phase of development began with a $ 30 million contract for demonstrators for technical evidence: Ford Aerospace (laser beam driving), Hughes Aircraft Missile System Group (infrared imaging combined) with fiber optic cable connection ) and Texas Instruments (infrared imaging). The POP phase ended at the end of 1988 and in June 1989 the complete development contract was awarded to a joint venture between Texas Instruments and Martin Marietta (now Raytheon and Lockheed-Martin). The AAWS-M was given the designation FGM-148.

The spear's first test flight was successful in April 1991, and the thrower's first test shot was successful in March 1993. Low production volumes were approved in 1994 and the first spears were used with US Army units in 1996.

Test and evaluation

Design testing and evaluation (DT&E) are performed to show that the design and development process is complete. It is used to reduce risk, validate and qualify the design, and to ensure that the product is ready for regulatory acceptance. The DT&E results are evaluated to ensure that design risks have been minimized and that the system meets specifications. The results are also used to assess the military benefit of the system when it is put into operation. DT&E serves a critical purpose in reducing development risk by testing selected high risk components or subsystems. DT&E is the government development agency's tool that confirms that the system is performing as specified and that the system is ready for field testing.

DT&E is an iterative process of designing, creating, testing, identifying defects, fixing, retesting, and repeating. It is carried out in the factory, laboratory, and testing site by contractors and the government. Contractor and government tests are aggregated and conducted in an integrated testing program to determine whether performance requirements have been met and to provide data to the decision-making authority.

The General Accounting Office (GAO) released a report questioning the adequacy of the spear tests. The report, titled "Army Acquisition - Javelin Not Ready for Multi-Year Procurement," rejected full production in 1997, expressing the need for further operational testing due to the numerous redesigns.

In 1995, Secretary of Defense William Perry unveiled five new operational test initiatives. This included: 1) early involvement of operational testers in the development; 2) use of modeling and simulation; 3) integration of development and operational tests; 4) combination of tests and training; and 5) applying concepts to demos and acquisitions.

The late stage of the Spear's development benefited retrospectively from the Secretary of Defense's then new operational test initiatives, as well as another test conducted as a result of the Army's response to the GAO report. Prior to the decision on Milestone III and prior to its deployment in the 3rd Battalion of the 75th Ranger Regiment at Fort Benning (including Army Rangers, Special Forces, Air, Air Assault, and Light Infantry), the spear was subjected to limited portions of the five operational tests evaluation initiatives as well as a portability test program (an additional test phase of the so-called product verification test) that included live shots with the configuration weapon at full speed.

According to the initiatives and as a DT&E role, the Defense Analysis Institute (IDA) and the Department of Defense Operations Testing and Assessment Director (DOT&E) have been involved in three development testing activities including: 1) review of initial operational testing and assessment plans; 2) Supervision of the first operational test and evaluation; and 3) structuring follow-up testing and assessment activities. The results of these efforts identified problems (including training) and corrected significant issues that resulted in changes to test plans, savings in testing costs, and GAO satisfaction.

Qualification tests

The Javelin Environmental Test System (JETS) is a mobile test set for Javelin All-Up-Round (AUR) and the Command Launch Unit (CLU). It can be configured to test the AUR or the CLU individually or both units in a suitable tactical mode. This mobile unit can be repositioned in the various environmental testing facilities. The mobile system is used for all phases of the Javelin qualification tests. There is also a non-mobile JETS that is used for stand-alone CLU testing. This system is equipped with an environmental chamber and is mainly used for product verification testing (PRVT). Features include: Javelin CLU testing; Javelin AUR Tests; Javelin Mated Mode Tests; Javelin tests under various environmental conditions; and CLU PRVT.

The all-up round test kits include: extreme temperature tests; Missile tracker test (track rate error, tracking sensitivity); Testing the viewfinder / focal plane array (cool down time, dead / defective pixels, viewfinder identification); pneumatic leakage; Continuity measurements; Standby time; and guide sections (guide commands, fin movement).

Components

The system consists of three main components - the Command Launch Unit, the Launch Tube Assembly, and the missile itself.

Command start unit

Command launch unit
Image LR NFOV, WFOV, daily lenses

The shooter carries a reusable command launch unit (in addition to the launch tube assembly), commonly referred to as a CLU (pronounced "hint"), and is the target component of the two-part system. The CLU has three views that are used to locate, aim, and fire the missile. It can also be used separately from the missile as a portable thermal visor. Infantry no longer needs to be in constant contact with armored personnel carriers and tanks with thermal visors. This makes infantry personnel more flexible and able to perceive threats that they would otherwise not be able to see. In 2006, Toyon Research Corporation was awarded a contract to begin developing an upgrade for the CLU that would allow target image and GPS location data to be transmitted to other units.

Day field of view

The first view is a 4X enlarged daily view. It is mainly used for scanning areas in visible light during daylight operation. It is also used for sunrise and sunset scanning when the thermal image is difficult to focus due to the natural rapid heating and / or cooling of the earth.

WFOV (wide field of view)

The second view is the night view with 4x magnification and shows the shooter a thermal representation of the area being viewed. This is also the primary view used for its ability to detect infrared radiation and find both troops and vehicles that are otherwise too well hidden to be detected. The screen shows a "green scale" that can be adjusted in terms of both contrast and brightness. The inside of the CLU is attached to the sight by a small chilled cooling unit. This significantly increases the sensitivity of the thermal imaging ability as the temperature in the sight is much lower than that of the objects it detects. Because of the sensitivity it creates, the shooter can "focus" the CLU to show a detailed picture of the area under observation by showing temperature differences of just a few degrees. The shooter operates this view with two hand stations that are similar to the joystick in modern cockpits. From this point of view, the shooter focuses the image and determines the area that will provide the best thermal signature for locking the missile.

NFOV (narrow field of view)

The third field of view is a 12 × thermal visor, which can be used to better identify the target vehicle. Once the CLU has focused on WFOV, the shooter can switch to NFOV for target detection before activating the viewfinder FOV.

As soon as the best target area is selected, the shooter presses one of the two triggers and automatically switches to the fourth view. the viewfinder field of view, which is a thermal view at 9x magnification. This process is similar to the automatic zoom function found on most modern cameras. This view is also available along with the previously mentioned views, all of which can be accessed with the push of a button. However, it's not as popular as it takes longer to scan a wide area with a high magnification view. This view enables the shooter to continue aiming the missile and to adjust the guidance system housed in the actual missile. In this view, information is transferred from the CLU to the missile's control system via the connection electronics of the launch tube assembly. If the shooter is uncomfortable firing the missile, he can still revert to the other views without having to fire the missile. When the shooter is familiar with the target image, he pulls the second trigger and creates a "lock". The missile launches after a short delay.

Light CLU

The US Army developed a new CLU as an improvement over the Block I version. The new CLU is 70 percent smaller, 40 percent lighter and has a 50 percent longer battery life. Features of the lightweight CLU are: a long wave IR sensor; a high resolution display with improved resolution; integrated handles; a five megapixel color camera; a laser spot that can be visibly or seen through IR; a remote target locator using GPS, a laser range finder, and a heading sensor; and modernized electronics. The LWCLU also demonstrated the ability to fire a FIM-92 stinger using its superior optics with the anti-aircraft missile to identify and destroy small unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs).

Start the pipe assembly

Both the shooter and the ammunition carrier carry a disposable tube called a Launch Tube Assembly, which houses the missile and protects the missile from harsh environments. The tube also has built-in electronics and a locking hinge system that makes attaching and detaching the missile to and from the Command Launch Unit quick and easy.

rocket

Warhead

The Javelin missile's tandem warhead is a HEAT type. This round uses an explosively shaped charge to create a stream of superplastically deformed metal formed from trumpet-shaped metal liners. The result is a narrow, high-velocity stream of particles that can penetrate the armor.

The spear counteracts the emergence of explosive reactive armor (ERA). ERA boxes or tiles overlying a vehicle's main armor explode when hit by a warhead. This explosion does no harm to the vehicle's main armor, but does cause steel sheets to fly over the path of the narrow stream of particles of a HEAT round, disrupting focus and preventing the main armor from being cut through. The spear uses two warheads with shaped charge together. The weak, smaller diameter HEAT precursor charge pushes through the ERA without triggering it, punching a channel through it for the much larger diameter HEAT warhead, which then penetrates the target's primary armor.

A two-layer molybdenum liner is used for the precursor and a copper liner is used for the main warhead.

To protect the main charge from the explosion, shock, and debris caused by the rocket nose impact and the detonation of the precursor charge, an anti-explosion device is used between the two charges. This was the first composite protective shield and the first to have a hole through the center to create a beam that is less diffuse.

A newer main charge liner produces a higher velocity jet. This change makes the warhead smaller but more effective, leaving more room for propellant for the main rocket motor, and thus increasing the missile's range.

Electronic arming and security is used, known as Electronic Safe Arming and Fire (ESAF). The ESAF system enables the further launch and arming process and carries out a series of security checks on the missile. ESAF calls the starter motor after pulling the trigger. When the missile reaches an important acceleration point (indicating that it has cleared the launch tube), ESAF will initiate a second arming signal to fire the aircraft engine. After a further check of the missile conditions (target lock test), the ESAF initiates the final arming so that the warheads can be detonated on impact with the target. When the missile hits the target, ESAF activates the tandem warhead function (adequate time between detonation of the precursor charge and detonation of the main charge).

Although the Spear's tandem HEAT warhead has been shown to be effective at destroying tanks, most of the threats it was used against in Iraq and Afghanistan have been weapons teams and teams, buildings, and lightly armored and unarmored vehicles. To make the spear more useful in these scenarios, the Aerospace and Missile Research, Development and Development Center developed a multipurpose warhead (MPWH) for the FGM-148F. While it's still deadly against tanks, the new warhead features a naturally fragmenting steel warhead housing that doubles its effectiveness against personnel due to the increased fragmentation. The MPWH adds no weight or cost, and has a lighter composite missile centerbody to allow for drop-in replacement of existing spear tubes. The Javelin F model is scheduled to begin delivery in early 2020. The improved missile design as well as the new lighter CLU with an improved target tracker went into production in May 2020.

drive

A US soldier fires a spear.

Most rocket launchers require a large free area behind the shooter to avoid injury from kickback. To remedy this deficiency without increasing the recoil to an unacceptable level, the Javelin system uses a soft launch mechanism. A conventional rocket launch engine with propellant throws the rocket from the launcher, but stops burning before the rocket clears the tube. The aircraft engine is only ignited after a delay in order to allow sufficient clearance by the operator. To save weight, the two motors are integrated with a rupture disc in between. It is designed to tolerate the pressure of the starter motor from one side but easily break off from the other side if the aircraft engine ignites. The engines share a common nozzle, with exhaust from the aircraft engine flowing through the spent starter engine. Since the housing of the starting motor remains in place, it is started with an unusual ring-shaped (ring-shaped) igniter. A normal detonator would blow out of the rear of the missile when the aircraft engine was ignited and could injure the operator. Since the starter engine uses a standard NATO propellant, the presence of lead beta resorcinol as a modifier to the burn rate results in a lot of lead and lead oxide in the exhaust. For this reason, the gunners are asked to hold their breath after shooting.

In the event that the starter motor is defective and the launch tube is under overpressure - for example if the rocket gets stuck - the Javelin rocket contains a pressure relief system to prevent the launcher from exploding. The starter motor is held in place by a set of shear pins that break if the pressure gets too high and allow the motor to slide out of the back of the pipe.

Viewfinder

As a fire-and-forget missile, once it has been launched, the missile must be able to track and destroy its target without the shooter. This is done by coupling an integrated imaging IR system (unlike the CLU imaging system) to an integrated image tracking system.

The gunner uses the CLU's IR system to find and identify the target, then switches to the missile's independent IR system to put a trackbox around the target and establish a lock. The shooter puts brackets around the image to lock it in place.

The viewfinder stays focused on the target's image and continues to track it when the target moves, the missile's trajectory changes, or when the angles of attack change. The seeker consists of three main components: Focal Plane Array (FPA), cooling, and calibration and stabilization.

Focal Plane Array (FPA)

The viewfinder arrangement is enclosed in a dome which is transparent to long-wave infrared radiation. The IR radiation passes through the dome and then through lenses that focus the energy. The IR energy is reflected by mirrors onto the FPA. The viewfinder is a two-dimensional rigid FPA made up of 64 × 64 MerCad (HgCdTe) detector elements. The FPA processes the signals from the detectors and forwards a signal to the missile's tracker.

The staring array is a photovoltaic device in which the incident photons stimulate electrons and are stored pixel by pixel in read-out integrated circuits that are attached to the rear of the detector. These electrons are converted into voltages that are multiplexed frame by frame from the ROIC.

Cooling / calibration

To function effectively, the FPA must be cooled and calibrated. In other applications, the IR detectors of a CLU are cooled using a Dewar piston and a closed loop Stirling engine, but there is not enough space in the missile for a similar solution. Prior to launch, a cooler mounted on the outside of the launch tube activates the electrical systems in the missile and delivers cold gas from a Joule-Thomson expander to the missile detector assembly while the missile is still in the launch tube. When the missile is fired, this external connection is broken and the coolant gas is supplied internally by an integrated argon gas cylinder. The gas is kept under high pressure in a small bottle and contains enough coolant for the flight duration of approx. 19 seconds.

The viewfinder is calibrated with a chopper wheel. This device is a six-blade fan: five black, low-IR-emissivity blades and one semi-reflective blade. These blades rotate synchronously in front of the search optics, so that the FPA is continuously provided with reference points in addition to viewing the scene. These reference points enable the FPA to reduce the noise caused by response fluctuations in the detector elements.

stabilization

The platform on which the viewfinder is mounted must be stabilized with respect to the movement of the missile body, and the viewfinder must be moved to stay aligned with the target. The stabilization system must be able to handle rapid acceleration, up / down and sideways movements. It does this through a gimbal system, accelerometers, gyroscopic masses (or MEMS), and motors to drive changes in position of the platform. The system is basically an autopilot. Information from the gyro is fed to the guidance electronics, which drive a torque motor attached to the search platform to keep the viewfinder aligned with the target. The wires connecting the viewfinder to the rest of the missile are carefully constructed to avoid movement or drag on the viewfinder platform.

tracker

Direct attack flight path.

The tracker is the key to guidance / control for a possible hit. The signals from each of the 4096 detector element (64 × 64 pixel array) are passed to the FPA's integrated readout circuits, which then reads a video frame that is sent to the tracker system for processing. By comparing the individual frames, the tracker determines the need for correction to keep the missile on target. The tracker must be able to determine which part of the image represents the target. The target is first defined by the shooter, who puts a configurable frame around it. The tracker then uses algorithms to compare that area of ​​the frame based on image, geometry, and motion data with the new image frames sent by the viewfinder, similar to pattern recognition algorithms. The reference is updated at the end of each frame. The tracker can track the target, although the viewfinder angle can change radically in the course of the flight.

To guide the missile, the tracker locates the target in the current frame and compares this position with the target point. If this position is not in the middle, the tracker calculates a correction and forwards it to the guidance system, which makes the appropriate adjustments to the four movable tail fins and eight fixed wings in the middle of the body. This is an autopilot. In order to guide the missile, the system has sensors that check whether the fins are positioned as desired. If not, the deviation is sent back to the controller for further adjustment. This is a rule.

The flight managed by the tracker consists of three phases: 1) a first phase immediately after take-off; 2) an in-flight phase that lasts most of the flight; and 3) a final stage in which the tracker selects the most effective point of impact. In guidance algorithms, the autopilot uses data from the seeker and tracker to determine when the missile should transition from one phase of flight to another. Depending on whether the missile is in top attack or direct attack mode, the profile of the flight can change significantly. In top attack mode, the missile must soar sharply after takeoff, cross at a great height, and then dive to the top of the target (curveball). In direct attack mode (fastball), the missile crosses directly onto the target at a lower altitude. The precise trajectory, which takes into account the distance to the target, is calculated by the steering unit.

training

Thorough familiarity with each controller and each fast operation must be achieved before the device can be used efficiently. American troops are trained on the system for two weeks at the Fort Benning, Georgia Infantry School. Soldiers are taught basic care and maintenance, operation and skills, assembly and disassembly, and the positions from which they can be fired. Soldiers also learn to distinguish between different types of vehicles, even if only a rough outline is visible. Soldiers must conduct several timed exercises with set standards before they are qualified to operate the system in both training and war situations. Most military bases also have minor training programs that instruct soldiers on how to properly use the system. The training program for these courses can be changed slightly. These are usually minor requirements that are neglected due to the budget, the number of soldiers compared to the simulation equipment, and the time and resources available. Both types of training courses require knowledge that must be fulfilled before the soldier can operate the system in training exercises or war missions.

advantages and disadvantages

advantages

The portable system can easily be broken down into main components and set up easily if necessary. Compared to clumsy anti-tank weapon systems, the difference is palpable. For example, a TOW requires a heavy tripod stand, a bulky protective cover for the thermal visor, a larger, longer launch tube, and much more time to assemble and prepare. The spear (although still heavy) is lighter than the other missiles and their necessary parts.

A range of up to 4,750 m is another advantage of this missile. In British vehicle tests in June 2016, the Speer missile scored 100% in five test shots from a British ground vehicle. Each spear flew distances between 1.2 and 4.3 kilometers and hit the ground target each time. The UK Live Fire tests "confirm the Javelin is more than 94 percent reliable and show that Javelin is capable of attacking targets from greater distances on a variety of platforms."

Although the CLU's thermal imaging can interfere with aiming, the thermal alignment allows the spear to be a fire-and-forgetful system. This gives the firefighter a chance to be out of sight and possibly move to a new fire corner or out of the area if the enemy finds himself under attack. This is much safer than using a wire-guided system in which the stationary firer must remain to guide the missile into the target.

Another advantage is the power of the spear. The tandem missile shaped charge warhead will penetrate reactive armor. With the top attack mode, the tank can be destroyed even better, as it can attack where most tanks are weakest.

The Javelin's soft launch capability allows only a minimal amount of backblast. Not only does this reduce the enemy's visible launch signature, it also allows the spear to be fired from within with minimal preparation, giving the spear advantages in urban combat over the widely used AT4 (which has a large area of ​​recoil, although it does) reduced in the AT4 CS). A large backblast area would seriously injure personnel if fired from an unprepared building and could reveal the location of the launch to enemy observers.

The missile also has a greater range than the US ATGM it replaced, the M47 Dragon.

disadvantage

The main disadvantage of the overall system (missile, tube and CLU) is the total weight of 22.3 kg. The system is portable for foot infantry and weighs more than originally prescribed by the US Army.

Another disadvantage is the reliance on a thermal view to capture targets. The thermal views can only be operated when the cooling component has cooled down the system. The manufacturer estimates 30 seconds to complete this. However, depending on the ambient temperature, this process can take much longer.

Javelin throwers and missiles are also expensive. In 2002, a single spear launch unit cost $ 126,000, and each missile cost around $ 78,000 (that's the equivalent of $ 112,000 in 2020). This is compounded by the U.S. Army's FY 2018 unit cost for the Javelin weapon system, which estimated the unit cost at $ 206,705. This is compared to the TOW 2 weapon system, which had a unit cost of $ 83,381, according to the same source.

Battle story

The spear was used by the US Army, US Marine Corps and Australian special forces in the 2003 invasion of Iraq on Iraqi Type 69 tanks and the Lion of Babylon. During the battle of the Debecka Pass, a train of US special forces soldiers equipped with spears destroyed two T-55 tanks, eight armored personnel carriers and four troop cars.

During the war in Afghanistan, the spear was used effectively in counterinsurgency (COIN) operations. Initially, soldiers found the weapon unsuitable for COIN due to its destructive power, but trained gunners were able to perform precision shots against enemy positions with little collateral damage. The spear filled a niche in US weapon systems against heavy DShK machine guns and recoilless B-10 rifles - weapons like the AT4 and M203 were powerful enough but had insufficient range; While medium and heavy machine guns and automatic grenade launchers had range, they lacked strength; and heavy mortars that had both good range and more than enough power were not precise enough. The spear had enough range, power, and accuracy for dismounted infantry to counter standoff engagement tactics used by enemy weapons. With good locks, the missile is most effective against vehicles, caves, fortified positions, and individual personnel. If enemy forces were in a cave, a spear shot into the mouth of the cave would destroy it from the inside, which was impossible from the outside with heavy mortars. The psychological effects of the sound of a spear fire sometimes caused the insurgents to break up and flee their position. Even when there was no shooting, the spear's CLU was widely used as a portable human surveillance system.

A spear was used to blow up an attacking suicide car bomb during the Syrian civil war's al-Shaddadi offensive in February 2016.

In 2016, allegations were posted on social media that the Syrian Kurdish People's Protection Units (YPG) may have received spear missiles. As of June 2018, it was still unconfirmed if the YPG were intercepting javelin missiles, although US Army Special Forces units have seen them in support of Operation Syrian Democratic Forces (SDF) progress with the Deir ez-Zor campaign in the central Euphrates valley.

In June 2019, the armed forces of the Libyan government of the National Agreement captured 4 spears from the armed forces of the Libyan National Army. These missiles were provided by the UAE.

operator

Card with FGM-148 operators in blue
A Norwegian soldier with the FGM-148 spear.

Current operator

  • Australia: 92 launch vehicles.
  • Bahrain: 13 launch vehicles.
  • Czech Republic: Bought 3 launchers and 12 missiles for their special forces (intended for use in Afghanistan). In December 2015, an additional $ 10.21 million order was placed for an unknown number of rockets and launch vehicles.
  • Estonia: 80 CLU (with option for another 40) and 350 missiles purchased from the US. In operation from 2016.
  • France: 76 launch vehicles and 260 missiles for use in Afghanistan. Replaced the MILAN anti-tank missile, no follow-up order in favor of the Moyenne Portée missile (MMP).
  • Georgia: 72 launch vehicles and 410 missiles. The FMS sale to the Georgian military, consisting of 410 Javelin Missiles and 72 Javelin Command Launch Units (CLUs), includes 2 Javelin Block 1 CLUs to be used as spare parts, has been approved for $ 75 million.
  • Indonesia: 25 launch vehicles and 189 missiles. Javelin Block 1 variant in a $ 60 million deal.
  • Ireland: Irish Army, replaced MILAN anti-tank missile.
  • Jordan: 30 launch vehicles and 116 missiles were received in 2004, and an additional 162 JAVELIN Command Launch Units (CLUs), 18 fly-to-buy missiles, 1,808 JAVELIN anti-tank guided missiles and other support equipment were ordered in 2009. The estimated cost is $ 388 million. Jordan placed another $ 133.9 million contract in 2017. Jordan is the third largest operator of the rocket after the USA and Great Britain.
  • Libya: Used by the Libyan National Army
  • Lithuania: 40 launch vehicles. The first European country to receive this launch vehicle and missile system (2001). In December 2015, the DSCA approved a possible sale by the foreign military to Lithuania for an additional 220 missiles and 74 CLUs for $ 55 million.
  • New Zealand: 24 launch vehicles
  • Norway: 100 launch vehicles and 526 missiles. Delivered from 2006, in use from 2009. In 2017, the Norwegian authorities started looking for an anti-tank weapon to counter new types of heavy tanks equipped with active protection systems that can defeat missiles like the spear.
  • Oman: 30 launch vehicles.
  • Qatar: In March 2013, Qatar applied for the sale of 500 spear missiles and 50 commando launch units. The deal was signed in March 2014.
  • Saudi Arabia: 20 launch vehicles and 150 missiles
  • Taiwan: In 2002, Taiwan purchased 360 spear missiles and 40 launch vehicles for $ 39 million. The contract also included training equipment, logistical support, related equipment and training. In 2008, the United States issued a Congressional Notice for the sale of an additional 20 launch vehicles and 182 additional missiles.
  • Ukraine: In 2018, Ukraine bought 210 missiles and 37 launch vehicles. No details were given beyond the confirmation of delivery (on April 30, 2018). In late 2019, Ukraine announced that it had signed contracts to purchase an additional 150 missiles and 10 launch vehicles. They were sent to Ukraine on June 21, 2020.
  • United Arab Emirates
  • United Kingdom: In January 2003 the UK Department of Defense announced that it had decided to procure Javelin for the Light Forces Anti-Tank Weapons System (LFATGWS) requirement. The UK purchase was for 850 units and 9,000 missiles. It entered UK service in 2005, replacing the MILAN and Swingfire systems.
  • USA: In 2003, the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) reported that the Army failed to explain 36 Javelin Command Launch Units totaling approximately $ 2.8 million. The New York Times later reported problems in the supply chain in military armories and warehouses in 2004 and raised concerns that weapons could fall into enemy hands.

Failed bids

  • Germany
  • India: India had proposed a deal to buy some off-the-shelf systems, with a greater number of licenses being produced locally through "technology transfer". However, this was not recognized by the United States. Instead, in September 2013, the US offered to jointly develop a newer variant of the spear, which this time was not recognized by India. Eventually the plan to purchase spears was "postponed" and in October 2014 India decided to purchase the Israeli spike missile system.

See also

Comparable systems

Related development

References

External links