How is a wooden floor made

Basics: structure and types of parquet

Parquet is one of the most popular floor coverings: it is versatile, visually appealing, easy to care for and creates a cozy living atmosphere. You will find an overview of the most important basics about parquet in this article.

Construction of parquet

A key distinguishing feature of parquet floors is the structure. A basic distinction is made between Solid or single-layer parquet and Prefabricated or multi-layer parquet

Solid parquet (single-layer parquet)

Solid parquet is the traditional form of parquet. It consists of one layer throughout Solid wood and is usually used in Raw state relocated. To do this, it is firmly glued to the substrate over the entire surface and only then sanded and surface treated. That is why laying solid parquet takes comparatively more time, as the floor can only be walked on after several work steps. Thanks to modern production processes, solid parquet is now increasingly available with a surface treatment applied in the factory, which reduces the time required for laying work.

Solid parquet is considered special resistant and durable and thanks to its thickness of up to 22 mm it can be used again and again renovated and refurbished become. Solid parquet is divided into different types:

Solid floorboards

As a purely natural product, solid floorboards are used glue-free from one piece of wood and are mostly in large formats available with a width of at least 12 cm and a length of 120 cm.

Strip parquet

The classic shape of the parquet consists of individual wooden stickswhich are inserted into one another by means of tongue and groove and nailed or glued to the sub-floor in various laying patterns. Strip parquet is in different dimensions available, whereby the most common dimensions are between 40 and 50 cm in length, 6 to 8 cm in width and 22 mm in thickness.

Mosaic parquet (adhesive parquet)

In the case of mosaic parquet, some are small and thinner Wooden slats (usually 8 to 10 mm thick) ready-to-install nets attached, which are glued to the sub-floor in various laying patterns. The square slats offer creative freedom and give the parquet floor a characteristic small-scale structure.


In terms of its properties, lamparquet is one Mixture of strip and mosaic parquet: While the dimensions are similar to those of the strip parquet, the thickness and laying are comparable to those of the mosaic parquet. Through the low installation height lamparquet was especially also at Renovations popular with existing buildings. Due to the increased use of prefabricated parquet, lamparquet is hardly used these days.

Edgewise lamellar parquet (industrial parquet)

As Residual product From the mosaic parquet production, vertical lamellar parquet also consists of individual ones Solid wood slatsthat are arranged upright. It is considered inexpensive alternative and due to its resilience is mostly used in the industrial sector or in public facilities as well as in catering. It should be noted at this point that the installation of upright lamellas can only be carried out by a professional floor layer. Due to the nature of this industrial parquet, laying is very complex and therefore correspondingly expensive (even if the unplaced upright lamella itself is very cheap).

Panel parquet (French parquet)

Known from castles and magnificent buildings, panel parquet is considered to be noblest form of the parquet floor. Geometric shapes made from different types of wood are glued to square panels and put into complex patterns laid, which makes every floor unmistakably unique.

Prefabricated parquet (multi-layer parquet)

In contrast to solid parquet, prefabricated parquet is already supplied by the manufacturer Produced ready for installation. It consists of two or three layers glued together as well as a surface finished with oil or varnish, which makes the floor walkable immediately after laying.

Prefabricated parquet is also popular with home improvement as it is through user-friendly click systems can be laid relatively easily and quickly by yourself.

2-layer parquet

The structure of 2-layer parquet consists of one upper wear or top layer and one lower carrier layer. The thickness of the wear layer (at least 2.5 mm) that consists of Real wood consists of various types of wood is considered to be Quality feature of the parquet: the thicker, the higher the quality and the more often the floor can be sanded. The carrier layer consists either of cheaper solid wood (e.g. softwood elements) or of wood composite panels (MDF - medium-density fibreboard or HDF - high-density fibreboard) and is glued transversely to the top layer. 2-layer parquet must glued over the entire surface be relocated. Through the different sizes and laying in Single rods 2-layer parquet offers versatile floor design options.

3-layer parquet

In addition to the wear layer and base layer, 3-layer parquet also contains a so-called Return, which is also made of wood or wood composites and is used for additional stability the floor construction. 3-layer parquet is mainly offered as a plank or ship floor and can do both floating on a suitable underlay mat as well glued over the entire surface be relocated.

Veneer parquet

As a special form of parquet floor combined Veneer parquet the special features of Wooden floor and laminate floor. Fine wood veneers soaked in resin are glued to water-resistant HDF carrier boards and, thanks to their multi-coated surface, achieve a heightResilience. In contrast to conventional prefabricated parquet, the usable area of ​​the veneer parquet is only 0.6 mm thick and therefore can not abraded become. Veneer parquet can be laid floating and is special because of that low installation height suitable for renovations of existing floor constructions.

Parquet formats and optics

Parquet panels are available in different formatsthat the bottom one each characteristic appearance to lend. The parquet look is divided into the following categories:

Plank look

The best-known parquet look is the country house plank (1-strip floor), in which the parquet panel is made from a piece of wood. By the large format and the continuous surface the characteristics of the type of wood used are fully retained. A floor with a plank look gives a room a elegant appearance and leaves spaces visually larger Act.

Longstrip look

In contrast to the planks, the decking of the ship's floor is staggered Bar elementsoptically interrupted and is reminiscent of the classic floor of a ship's deck. Depending on the number of parquet strips lying next to each other, a distinction is made between 2-strip or 3-strip flooring. The short bar panels result in a ship floor vivid and dynamic picturewhich, thanks to its diversity, harmonizes with every furnishing style.

Long strap look

With your long but slim format there are long straps between the plank and the ship's floor. Due to the creative scope in laying, the Landriemen optics fits into any room size.

Sorting parquet

Just as no two pieces of wood are alike, there are also great differences in appearance when it comes to parquet. Even wood of the same type of wood or even different pieces of wood from the same tree differ in grain, color and structure. In order for the floor covering to produce the most uniform possible overall picture, the parquet panels are sorted during production according to standardized criteria such as knots, cracks, bark, color, grain, etc. depending on the type of wood. The sorting has a purely visual effect and has no influence on the quality or resistance of the parquet.

Depending on the manufacturer, there are a wide variety of grading designations, but they can all be divided into three basic groups:

Quiet sorting

Subtle appearance, hardly any knots and cracks, inconspicuous grain, slight color differences, only heartwood

Lively sorting

Moderately conspicuous optics, small healthy, firmly grown knots and cracks (partly filled with a spatula), pronounced grain, small proportions of sapwood

Rustic sorting

Striking appearance, many healthy, firmly overgrown knots and cracks (partly filled with a spatula), striking grain, clear color differences, high proportions of sapwood,

Surface finishing of parquet

In contrast to the surface sealing, the surface finishing has predominantly optical effects and hardly any consequences for the resilience or need for maintenance of the floor. A parquet floor is given its own through various surface finishing methods final appearance. Often several techniques are used in combination, resulting in a wealth of possibilities.

Brushed parquet

It is best known brushed parquet, in which the wood is worked in the direction of the grain with a brush in order to remove the soft parts of the wood as far as possible. The remaining hard wood parts form a plastic surface, the structure of which hides dirt and minor damage to a certain extent.

Scraped parquet / planed parquet

Characteristic for scraped parquet or planed parquet, is an individual, mostly irregular surface structure that results from treatment with a plane. Scraped parquet is often also brushed, which underlines the unmistakable look even more clearly.

Leached parquet

To prevent unwanted darkening of light floors, comes leached parquet for use. The lye that is applied reacts with the tannins and the resin of the wood and thus prevents color changes caused by UV light. With darker types of wood, on the other hand, alkalis are used to deliberately achieve different color variations.

Limed parquet

A completely new color appearance was achieved limed parquet. Mainly large-pored wood (e.g. oak) is treated with wax and color pigments (mostly white) in order to fill the pores of the wood and to emphasize the grain of the floor. It works similarly with Parquet with a lava effect: With this method, wooden grooves are closed with predominantly white or black fillers, which gives the floor the appearance of isolated lava flows.

Heat-treated parquet / smoked parquet

Not only influencing the appearance, but also the properties of the floor controlled heat treatments or thermal pressure treatments. The wood is heated for several hours in order to make the floor more durable and water-resistant.

Smoked parquet in turn, the interaction of the ammonia applied and the tannic acid of the wood gives the wood not only a brown to black color, but also more suppleness and greater resistance to insect and fungal attack.

Sealing of parquet

The final surface sealing has a significant influence on the quality, resistance and longevity of the parquet floor. Depending on the stress on the floor, there are different methods of protecting the parquet from moisture, dirt and damage.

Oiled parquet

Oiled parquet underlines the natural structure of the floor and remains special breathable. By applying oil, the pores of the wood remain open and can absorb and release whatever humidity is unrestricted positive for the indoor climate affects. Also minor damage can be straightforward mended andrepaired become. However, oiled parquet is also more sensitive in the case of water, fat or other impurities and should therefore regularly with appropriate care products post-treated become.

Waxed parquet

An alternative to oil is wax. Waxed parquet also remains breathable, is due to the water-repellent Wax protective layer however more resistant against water and dirt and slip-resistant. Waxed parquet should also be used regularly post-treated become.

Lacquered parquet

Permanent sealing offers lacquered parquet. The applied varnish forms a closed protective layerthat prevents the ingress of moisture and abrasion. This varnish needs several days after application Hardenbefore the parquet can be walked on. Lacquered parquet needs no follow-up treatment, but must be at Damage sanded off or renewed become.

Especially Water-based paints are recommended for surface sealing because they are easy to process and contain few solvents. Depending on the composition and protective intensity of the lacquer, a distinction is made between 1-, 2- and 3-component parquet sealing. While the parquet varnish the 1-component sealing a corresponding Basic protection offers, varnish contains the 2-component sealing an additional Hardness componentthat offers higher quality protection and also hardens faster. In the 3-component sealing is also a UV protection component added, which protects the floor from yellowing and darkening.