Army surgeons carry firearms

Poisons pp 1-46 | Cite as

Summary

There are only a few records from antiquity relating to the toxicity of intoxicating and numbing plants. The pursuit of the uncertain beginnings of evidence of toxic side effects seems to get lost in the limits of historical time. Very isolated traces are wrapped in the cloak of myth. Narcotics for pain relief and for creating artificial sleep have been known to the ancient civilized peoples since the earliest times: The first historically attested attempts go back to the 3rd millennium BC (a Babylonian clay disc mentions henbane seeds against toothache). The term narcotic is of Greek origin: υαρxη once meant paralysis, paralysis; on the other hand, he referred to the convulsive or electric ray. “Nàrkosis”, the numbness, is undoubtedly directly related to the live electric ray recommended in antiquity by Scribonius Largus, Galen, Dioscurides and Paulus von Aegina for migraine attacks, the “Narke thalassia”. The blow delivered by this fish should claim “narcosis” or “torpor”, paralysis or paralysis, as an effective therapeutic agent.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

literature

  1. Amberger-Lahrmann M (1985) Narcotics in the Old World. Med Welt 36: 1639–1641Google Scholar
  2. Amberger-Lahrmann M (1986) Narcotics in the Middle Ages. Med Welt 37: 1349-1352Google Scholar
  3. Aronson S (1930) History of nitrous oxide anesthesia. In: Kyklos Yearbook for the History and Philosophy of Medicine III. Thieme, Leipzig, pp. 183-257Google Scholar
  4. Baldwin JF (1916) Nitrous oxide and oxygen the most dangerous anaesthetic. Med Rec 90, 177Google Scholar
  5. Benn G (1917) Cocaine, O night. In: Ges. Works in 4 volumes, Bd I. Fischer Taschenbuch, 1982Google Scholar
  6. Bemard C (1857) Leçons sur les effets des substances toxiques et médicamenteuses. Baillière, ParisGoogle Scholar
  7. Bernard, C (1875) Leçons on the anesthesia and on the asphyxia. Baillière, ParisGoogle Scholar
  8. Bert P (1878) Sur la possibilité d’obtenir à l’aide du protoxyde d’azote, une insensibilité de long durée, et sur l’innocuité de cet anesthésique. C R Sceances Acad Sci 87: 728-730 Google Scholar
  9. Bibra E (1855) The narcotic luxury foods and man. Schmid, NümbergGoogle Scholar
  10. Billeter (1886) Cocaine. Correspondenzblatt Schweizer Ärzte 16: 675Google Scholar
  11. Bier A (1889) experiments on cocainization of the spinal cord. Dtsch Z Chir 51: 361-369Google Scholar
  12. Bierhaus H (1940) The effect of various anesthetics on the human circulatory system. Arch Klin Chir 198: 73-102 Google Scholar
  13. Bornemann (1886) On cocaine addiction. Dtsch Medizinalzeitung Berlin: 784–786Google Scholar
  14. Braun H (1903) About the influence of tissue vitality on the local and general toxic effects of local anesthetics and about the importance of adrenaline for local anesthesia. Arch Klin Chir 69: 541-591Google Scholar
  15. Brunn M von (1913) The general anesthetic. In: von Bruns P (Hrsg) Neue Deutsche Chirurgie, V Enke, Stuttgart.Google Scholar
  16. Bühler (1886) Correspondence sheet for Swiss doctors 16: 608Google Scholar
  17. Buess H (1944). About the use of coca and cocaine in medicine. Ciba Journal No. 94, 8: 3362-3365Google Scholar
  18. Casper (1850) Chronic chloroform poisoning. Caspers Wochenschr 50Google Scholar
  19. Chauliac, Guy de (1890) La Grande Surgery. F. Alcan, Paris, p. 436Google Scholar
  20. Charriere G (1974) The Art of the Scythians. Du Mont Schauberg, CologneGoogle Scholar
  21. Colton GQ (1868) Nitrous oxide as an anesthetic. Lancet II: 779-780 Google Scholar
  22. Coronedi G (1921) L’attuale epidermia di cocainismo. Chir Med 2: 321-332 Google Scholar
  23. Crile GW (1915) Phenomena of acidosis and its dominating influence in surgery. Trans Am Surg Assoc 62: 257-263Google Scholar
  24. Darmstaedter E (1931) On the history of narcosis and anesthesia. Pain 4: 117–129Google Scholar
  25. Demarquay (1872) Report in Medical Times 1: 334Google Scholar
  26. Dieffenbach JF (1847) The ether against pain. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  27. Eichholtz F (1940) On the respiratory paralyzing effect of opiates. Dtsch Med Wochensehr: 792–795Google Scholar
  28. Eismayer G, Wachsmuth W (1929) Studies on the effect of various narcotics on the normal, unnerved and digitized dog heart. Dtsch Z Chir 217: 289-302Google Scholar
  29. Embley E (1902) The causation of death during the administration of chloroform. Br Med J I 817: 885,951Google Scholar
  30. Eppinger H (1935) Serous inflammation. Springer, ViennaGoogle Scholar
  31. Erlenmeyer A (1887) The morphine addiction and its treatment. Heuser’s, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  32. Faraday M. (1818): Effects of inhaling the vapors of sulfuric ether. Q J Sci Arts Miscellanae 4: 158–159 Google Scholar
  33. Fiedler, Hirschfeld (1875/76): About the abuse of morphine injections. Annual d. Ges. F. Natur- und Heilkunde Dresden, 185Google Scholar
  34. Flury F, Zangger H (1928) Textbook of toxicology. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  35. Foldes F, Swerdlow M Siker, E (1968) Morphine-like analgesics and their antagonists. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  36. Fraenkel E (1892) About anatomical changes due to chloroform aftereffects in humans. Virch Arch Pathol Anat 127: 381-396 Google Scholar
  37. Fraenkel E (1892) On the after-effects of chloroform in humans. Virch Arch Pathol Anat 129: 254-284 Google Scholar
  38. Freud S (1884) About Coca. Zentralbl ges Therapy 2: 289–314Google Scholar
  39. Freud S. (1885) Contribution to the knowledge of the coca effect. Wien Med Wochensehr 35: 129–133Google Scholar
  40. Frommel E (1927) Que penser de quelques injections préparantes ou concomitantes de la narcose chloroformique. Switzerland Med Wochenschr 57: 694–698Google Scholar
  41. Gates M, Tschudi G (1952) The synthesis of morphine. J Am Chem Soc 74: 1109-1110Google Scholar
  42. Goltstein M (1878) About the physiological effects of nitrogen oxydul gas. Arch Ges Physiol 17: 331-373Google Scholar
  43. Goltz D (1976) Medieval pharmacy and medicine. Wissenschaftliche Verlagsgesellschaft, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  44. Grape-Albers H (1977) Late antique images from the world of the doctor. Pressier, WiesbadenGoogle Scholar
  45. Grewe R (1946) The problem of the morphine synthesis. Natural Sciences 33: 333–336Google Scholar
  46. Gulland JM, Robinson R (1925) Constitution of codeine and thebaine. Mem Proc Manchester Lit Philosopher Soc 69: 79Google Scholar
  47. Gurlt E (1897) On anesthesia statistics. Negotiate d. XXVI. German Surgical Congress, Part I, Hirschwald, Berlin S 130, Part II, S 202Google Scholar
  48. Guthrie LG (1894) On some fatal after-effects of chloroform on children. Lancet I: 193, 257 Google Scholar
  49. Hahn B (1927). The morphine diseases. Großberger, HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  50. Concise dictionary of German superstition (1927) I De Gruyter, Berlin S 312-324Google Scholar
  51. Hankel E (1898) Handbuch der Inhalationsanaesthetica. A. Langkammr, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  52. Haupt (1886) A case of cocaine addiction in a child. Deutsche Medizinalzeitung, Berlin, pp. 825–826Google Scholar
  53. Hecht AF, Nobel E (1913) Electrocardiographic studies on anesthesia. Z Ges Exp Med 1: 23-58Google Scholar
  54. Henderson Y (1911) Primary heart failure in normal subjects under ether. Surg Gynecol Obstet 13: 161-165Google Scholar
  55. Hermann L (1864) About the physiological effects of nitrogen oxydul gas. Arch Anat Physiol: 521-536Google Scholar
  56. Hermann L (1866) note on the recommendation of nitric oxide as an anesthetic. Berl Klin Wochenschr III: 115–116Google Scholar
  57. Husemann Th, Husemann A (1862) Handbook of Toxicology. Georg Reimer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  58. Husemann Th (1896) The sleep sponges and other methods of general and local anesthesia in the Middle Ages. Dtsch Z Chir 42: 517-596Google Scholar
  59. Joël E, Fränkel F (1924) Cocainism. Results of internal medicine, Vol. 25. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  60. Joël E (1928) Ether addiction. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 26: 1081-1083Google Scholar
  61. Julliard G (1891) L’ether est-il préférable au chloroforme? Rev Méd Suisse Romande 2: 81Google Scholar
  62. Kapier O (1880) anesthetics. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  63. Keys TE (1968) The History of Surgical Anesthesia. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  64. Keyserling KH from (1947) Die Äthersucht. Neurologist 18: 450–453Google Scholar
  65. Killian H, Weese H (1954) The anesthesia. Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  66. Kobert R (1906) Textbook of Intoxications, Bd II. Enke, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  67. Koller K (1884) About the use of cocaine for anesthesia on the eye. Wien Med Wochenschr 34: 1276–1278; 1309-1311 Google Scholar
  68. Kraepelin E (1892) About the influence of some drugs on simple psychological processes. Gustav Fischer, JenaGoogle Scholar
  69. Kritos PG (1960) The poppy seeds, the opium and their use in the Late Minoic III. Praktika tés Akademias Athenon 35 1: 54–72Google Scholar
  70. Kuhlen F-J (1983) On the history of pain, sleep and narcotics in the Middle Ages and early modern times. Deutscher Apotheker Verlag, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  71. Laehr HH (1872) On abuse of morphine injections. Allg Z Psychol 28: 349-352 Google Scholar
  72. Laubi O (1886) Contribution to the effect of cocaine in subgingival use. Correspondence sheet for Swiss doctors: 16: 615Google Scholar
  73. Leschke E (1933) The most important poisonings. Lehmanns, MunichGoogle Scholar
  74. Levinstein E (1877) The Morphine Addiction. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  75. Levy AG (1911) Sudden death under light chloroform anesthesia. J Physiol (Lond) 42: III – VIIGoogle Scholar
  76. Lewin L (1893) The side effects of drugs. Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  77. Lewin L (1924) Phantastica. The numbing and exciting stimulants. Stilke, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  78. Lewin L (1929) Poisons and Poisonings. Stilke, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  79. Lichtenthaeler Ch (1982) History of Medicine. Deutscher Ärzte Verlag, Cologne-LövenichGoogle Scholar
  80. Lundy JS (1937) Convulsions associated with general anesthesia. Surgery 1: 666-687 Google Scholar
  81. Maier HW (1926) Cocainism. Thieme, LeipzigGoogle Scholar
  82. Martin G (1870): Intoxication chronique par l’ether. Gazette des Hôpitaux 54: 213-214Google Scholar
  83. Monroe SE, Benjamin EL (1941) Convulsions associated with general anesthesia: “ether convulsions”. Am J Surg 53: 172-176Google Scholar
  84. Müller B (1905) About the use and influences of nitrogen oxide on the organism. Therapy Present 46: 460–466Google Scholar
  85. Müller J (1982) The herbal remedies from Hildegard von Bingen. Müller, SalzburgGoogle Scholar
  86. Nauwerck (1895) Ethemarkosis and Pneumonia. Dtsch Med Wochenschr 121–124Google Scholar
  87. Niemann A (1860) About a new organic base in coca leaves. Dissertation, University of GöttingenGoogle Scholar
  88. Nothnagel (1866) The fatty degeneration of the organs in ether and chloroform poisoning. Berl Klin Wochenschr 31–33Google Scholar
  89. Nussbaum von (1874) narcosis with nitrogen oxydul gas. 280 experiments. Relationship d. German Ges. F. Chir. II, Hirschwald, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  90. Plato Phaedo. Rowohlt Tachenbuchverlag (1985) S 117e – 118aGoogle Scholar
  91. Poppert (1894) On a case of ether death as a result of pulmonary edema along with comments on anesthesia statistics. Dtsch Med Woschenschr 37: 719–721Google Scholar
  92. Rein H (1931) Vasomotor Regulation. Erg Physiol 32: 28-72Google Scholar
  93. Rühl A (1930) On disorders of the oxygen passage in the lungs. Arch Exp Pathol Pharmakol 158: 282-303 Google Scholar
  94. Schadewaldt H (1971) Medical historical considerations on the drug problem. Doctor Praxis 23: 3591-3593; 3635-3638 Google Scholar
  95. Schadewaldt H (1972) On the history of some intoxicating drugs. Materia Medica Nordmark 24: 1–26Google Scholar
  96. Schadewaldt H (1978) Hellmut Weese memory lecture. From Galen's “anesthesia” to the modern “balanced anesthesia”. Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care Medicine 12: 589–601Google Scholar
  97. Schaumann O (1957) Morphine and morphine-like compounds. In: Handbook for Experimental Pharmacology, Vol XII. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  98. Schipperges H (1985) The garden of health. Medicine in the Middle Ages. Artemis, MunichGoogle Scholar
  99. Schleich CL (1892) Infiltration anesthesia (local anesthesia) and its relationship to general narcosis (inhalation anesthesia) Verh Dtsch Ges Chir 21: 121–127Google Scholar
  100. Schneiderlin (1900) A new anesthetic. Doctor Communication Baden 54: 101-106Google Scholar
  101. Snow J (1858) On chloroform and other anesthetics: their action and administration. Churchill, LondonGoogle Scholar
  102. Sommer (1899) Abuse of ether in East Prussia. Neurol. Centrabl. 18: 194-195 Google Scholar
  103. Sonnedecker G (1963): The opium addiction. Pharm 103: 835-840; 899–903 Google Scholar
  104. Sprengel C (1807) Historia rei herbariae. Amsteldami Sumtibus Tabernae Librariae Et ArtiumGoogle Scholar
  105. Steinbrecher W, Solms H (1975) Addiction and abuse (founded by R Laubenthal) Thieme, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  106. Völger G, Welck K. von (1982): Intoxication and Reality - Drugs in Culture Comparison, I-III. Rowohlt Taschenbuchverlag, ReinbeckGoogle Scholar
  107. Wagner H (1970) Narcotic Drugs. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New YorkGoogle Scholar
  108. Wallé (1885) Aphoristic reports on antidotes of opiates with special consideration of the position of cocaine in relation to morphine. Deutsche Medizinalzeitung Berlin: 25–26Google Scholar
  109. Wepfer SR (1679) Historia Cicutae aquaticae BaselGoogle Scholar
  110. WilIstätter R (1898) On the constitution of the cleavage products of atropine and cocaine. Reports of the German Chemical Law 2: 1534–1553, 1819Google Scholar
  111. Wilson SR (1927) "Ether convulsions." Lancet 1117–1119Google Scholar
  112. Zekert O (1956) Opiologia. Steyrermühl, Vienna VIGoogle Scholar
  113. Zemaitis M (1957) Literary evidence from the history of anesthesia. Diss. Med. Fac. Univ. HeidelbergGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1988

Authors and Affiliations

There are no affiliations available