Has a noise ever made you nauseous

The noise

The noise.


A battle script against the noises of our life.



Of

Theodor Lessing.



Wiesbaden.

Published by J. F. Bergmann.

1908.

Border issues

of

Nerve and soul life.

Single representations

For

Educated of all classes.


Founded by

Dr. L. Loewenfeld and Dr. H. Kurella.

In association with outstanding specialists at home and abroad

published by

Dr. L. Loewenfeld

in Munich.



Volume ninth (issue 54).[WS 1]

Contents overview.


The noise. A pamphlet against the sounds of our life. Of Theodor Lessing.

Introduction.
First chapter: Psychology of anesthesia.
Second chapter: Noise and culture.
Third chapter: The sensitivity of the ear.
Chapter Four: Sounds.
Fifth chapter: Legal protection against the noise.
Enough.
Additions.


Only to a lesser extent do I have scientific, literary intentions, in that I am preparing to write down a few reflections on noise and noise. First of all, however, above all else, it is important to me to relieve myself of the excruciating tension of long resentment and factual anger. In addition, I want to have an impact on as many people as possible. I want to shake them up, point out dangers and shortcomings in life and ways to remedy and improve them! It is indifferent to me in which areas of science the following statements belong. It is indifferent when they break into many enclosures of those who know better; upset this or that; to be misunderstood by this or that. They are everyday human things. It would be desirable that quite a few people express their opinion freely about them, because some of them might have important experiences and contributions to share on our topic. One can rightly describe this topic as the "borderline question of nervous and mental life" (if one even wants to admit that there are such "borderline questions"; and unless one restricts the researcher to the choice, objects like noise, either from the physiological or should be considered from a psychological point of view). But many other fields of work also have an interest in and share in exactly the same subject: sound psychology, music, otology, physiology of sensory perception, psychophysics. Then especially hygiene, economic and social policy. - But one should not disregard the following sheets, because on them simple things of daily life lead to questions and reproaches more philosophical Be viewing. There is no material for philosophy that is in and of itself more important than any other. I just wish I could demonstrate how to get into from any point of the experience[WS 2] Backgrounds and backgrounds of life can plunge down, as in every subject of subjective experience all contribute to general energies, flow together and interpenetrate; the whole human race, the whole cosmos. Everything is equally void and important; it doesn't matter where you start. But that is just a false “scientific approach”, for which just the solemn, profound, expressive - give cause for brooding. To deal with God and the end of mankind is not in and of itself more important than dealing with the thousand concrete little things of practice. Ultimately, these always form the real worry of our days of life, have the most relentless and fateful effects, and are considered by everyone in the bottom of their hearts to be the most necessary things in life. - A general human, daily emergency is in question here. The most apt form of our language, to use the most concentrated mental power to illuminate and exalt it, would be my wish. Nevertheless, several sections of the five chapters of my work (especially the first two more general chapters) can only be addressed to a few who are demanding. Those readers who are exclusively concerned with the practical interest, the “merit” of the book, may skip this or that page. They should start reading where they are dealing with current, tangible, obvious experiences, areas that everyone knows and in which everyone has to help. Because the final goal I set myself is this, to preach a campaign. My book is intended to signal a general fight against the excess of noise in contemporary life. May it set feathers in motion more skillfully or more popularly. May give many an opportunity to pass on his suggestions. Yes, I hope for the realization of a general, international alliance against noise, which will influence criminal law, civil law, administrative and police legislation. His banner should read: "non clamor sed amor". ...

First chapter.

Psychology of anesthesia.
“Kant wrote a treatise on living forces; But I would like to write a Nänie and Threnody about them, because their extremely frequent use, in knocking, hammering and ramming, has made me a daily pain throughout my life. Certainly there are people, indeed quite a few, who smile at this because they are insensitive to noise: however, they are just those who are also insensitive to reasons, to thoughts, to poetry and works of art, in short, to mental impressions of all kinds: because it is due to the tough nature and firm texture of their brain mass. "

Outrageous restlessness, terrible loudness weighs down on all earthly life. In order to understand it in its ultimate depth, it is necessary to first descend to two fundamental soul powers that weave in all structures of human culture and are alive in all phenomena of human economy. -

Once the tendency is slumbering in our sex to drive life up to ever higher spirituality! Man strives for "consciousness". Over the dark chaos of his restless desires and primitive passions he throws the formative web of reasonable discipline. He makes life “rational”. He militarizes and uniformed it. He tames and binds it in "reason". - But a second, completely differently directed and yet equally ineradicable soul inclination is opposed to this: the need for unconsciousness and oblivion, our inclination towards everything that numbs or obscures conscious knowledge. This move towards the "subjective" or "irrational" is also expressed in thousands of forms of the economy. - Like no animal living being itself continuously at the height of conscious vigilance, in sleepless arousal, none is able to maintain that Change of night and day and the Change between self-confidence and vegetative renewal in sleep, so can the human race as Whole not endure a constant awareness of life. This life would be used up, would be exhausted in all its energies by the spiritual activity, if the development towards reason and thinking were not inhibited by those completely different "irrational" soul powers ... As, according to today's physics, all cosmic energies are regulated in a only one Convert energy form, namely in the form of warmth, in order to ultimately lead to the consumption, even to the frozen standstill of the movement of life, to the so-called "entropy" of the cosmos - this is how all the movements of the soul last in a only one Energy to flow into, namely intellectual energy, d. H. in the form of "awareness" in order to come to rest in it. In this way, however, the “spirit” becomes the gnawing and destructive parasite of “life”. The conscious Regulation of the vital functions prevents and consumes the energy of innumerable instinctive, reflective abilities through which the animal or the "natural man" is superior to the "higher" human being. The immeasurable increase and refinement of those strange structures of the gray cerebral cortex to which the faculty of knowing thought seems to be linked - it only takes place at the expense of the cerebrum and spinal cord. So the progress of human world consciousness threatens the life force that this progress wear got to. So our ascent to spiritual culture seems to be the descent of “life” at the same time. Thus the ideals of the vaunted "development" are darkened by the growing shadow of decadence, depopulation, or at least a vital weakening and physical degradation of the human race.

Here, however, those forces of a different nature intervene in the gears of all to steer and conserve forward lashing forces. What night and sleep do to us physical Achieve conservation, achieve that these Powers for the high spirituality of psychopathically endangered, more complicated, later individuals. You are hostile to the mind antilogical. - It is therefore justified that one tries to characterize them as “reactionary” and “conservative” from the point of view of “progressive ethics”. But from one other Side view, just manage you the "healing power of nature" and appear indispensable and deeply necessary. They also turn out to be in the last Deep rooted in the soul. And most of all with those countless people who suffer from excess more rational Moments of life in their feeling for the world or in their ideals run away from themselves, as it were.

What are these now antirational, consciousness "retarding life forces"? It should be clear without further ado that they can only be based in the most conservative element of the soul, in "feelings". You need the light power of the mind, the brightness[WS 3] flee of knowledge just as they are in the habit of igniting the dark sultriness of the "mind". It is precisely this that characterizes them as the antagonists of those intellectual energies that freeze all the warmth of life, even make it glaciate, and ultimately leave nothing behind but just the one white, cold flame of "consciousness". ... All the forces become "pure feeling" above all in religious Experience centered. Because "religion" is the Power that detaches people's feelings, moods and impulses most radically from their natural interweaving with current interests and factual, empirical elements of everyday life. In her the soul represents her most personal Hope, striving, love and desire naked and undisturbed, as it were, into a more objective range of values. The ego is reflected in it, freed from factuality and empiricism. In it, all real content is stripped from the basic feeling of the world, from the cosmic mood of life. Just this world feeling, just this mood of life himself seizes itself in mythical images or relational, many exciting symbols. All the great leitmotifs that are embedded in current life are thus pulled out of their innumerable practical obstacles. They are collected in a super-empirical, "transcendent" area in order to give sanctification and consecration to all factual life from there, reflecting back. All hope is here Nothing as hope. All love is here Nothing as love. All fear, all longing, everything in reality that is always unfulfilled, stunted, unattainable striving blossoms here and finds a goal beyond anything certain Goal. ... This emancipation of the "backward binding" powers of the mind from all the rational, corrective, constantly transforming disturbances on the part of the reality gives religion its peculiar special position among all forces of life. - Only one power of life is equal to it; indeed it surpasses the religious in the absoluteness and self-glory of the emotional satisfaction, namely that art; as the contemplative, empathetic, purposelessly looking, aesthetic position on the colorful empirical things of this "world". And within this aesthetically contemplative experience of the “world” it is again the musicwhich is most closely related to religious experience, most ruthlessly detached from all factual and purposeful determinations of reality. Because music, like religion, is an alogical, irrational, emotionally and immediate power of life. Just like religion, she wears the colorful fool's dress of real Striped of life. It never offers anything specific, individual, smooth-circumscribable. Rather, all the basic experiences of the soul that support themselves are duplicated in it; all its floods and ebb, inhibition or rising, feeling exaggerated or depressed, all tension, relaxation, hesitation, stumbling, rushing, storming; everything stowing, adjusting, balancing, becoming entangled or liberated, in it to shape our impulses of will and feelings take place. But what we ascribe to these countless forms of excitement in terms of interpretive thoughts and symbolic experiences; on which empirical Content we refer to them, or what rational Objects and concrete Images of life emerge from the stream of music for each of us and float over their life-spurt like the souls of the once living over the restless waters of the Styx, that is completely indifferent to the essence of music! Because this being is completely beyond (or this side) of all concrete Objectivity! Just so about how to live with in every day life[WS 4] takes over sleep, so that it is reflected in the walking and weaving of dark feelings, from the "dreams" as from a new and yet strangely familiar dimension, so we take the familiar thinking and being of everyday life with us into the music. But this is what music does himself nothing on. For the music himself it is so insignificant, as for example for “pure number theory”, that it can also be used as an art of arithmetic, for “pure logic” that it is also used as a thinking technique can. In and of itself, music offers Nothing as abstract shape of vitality. Tempo, dynamics, agogics, rhythm, modulation of the course of experiences; similar to math (without any regard for factual Applicability and concrete Evidence) abstract necessities of reason at all specifies. So music goes to the stream bed of the Life according to how math that des Mind traces.

*     *     *


Now it is an old, profound experience that the forces that support life are soon joined by a "counterpart", something that is comical or tragic-comic Contraryplay, that, from all of the same Right of the heart sprang from it, but only as if in a concave mirror, as if it were placed in a caricaturing and gloomy sphere. This is the great truth of the "apes of the ideal". Just like the devil, whom Luther calls the “after image of God”, exactly that same Exhibits essential and power qualities that God himself possesses, only each turned in the negative - so there is nothing noble, noble and life-uplifting that is not immediately from his Againstgames would be taken up and grafted on to what it overcame and negated in its pure sense. Where has a justified idea been expressed, a useful party or society founded, a valuable measure represented, without the mob immediately attacking it, the vulgar allied with it and some vulgar politics of "interests" being attached to it, spoiling it, distorting it or even ridiculed? The general form in which this tends to happen is always this that the ideal power of abstract Sphere removed and recently with coarse factual Purposes and concrete Needs are linked, the stripping of which and leaving behind had been the essence of the longing that supported them. Even now a ideal Need satisfied; but it happens, so to speak, in a solid, clumsy, primitive form. In this relationship is z. B. all superstition (from animism and shamanism of undeveloped peoples to occult mysticism and crude concrete metaphysics), - to the elf-delicate, butterfly-light heavenly child religion. In this relationship of “psychological shift” or “concretization” there are manifold forms of obsessional neurosis to “religiosity”. The highest upswing, the mightiest exuberance that man is capable of, is dragged down again into the dull, accustomed path of causal, naturalistic world orientation. That now analogous owns the music her caricaturing "after picture": the noise.…

*     *     *


All this terrible rioting, this incessant roaring, roaring, whistling, hissing, hissing, hammering, ramming, knocking, shrieking, screaming and raging, with which people usually accompany his actions, rise, as well as language and music, from more vital need up. Hence all struggle against the noiseside of life not one step forward, if we do not first sound out the spiritual underground, in which all the noisy roar of life necessary is anchored. Because the most beautiful music like the most terrible noise, the purest religiosity like the weirdest mysticism, the poetically transfigured love, like common sexual obscenity - they are rooted in the very same the same Place, in the same deepest depth of the human soul. Only the sheltering, nourishing layers of soil through which these spiritual root forces break out from the same germ, color and change, cloud or purify their essential nature so decisively that ultimately at the one In the place of life a delicate celestial flower remote from the world, on the other a disgusting, shameful hybrid plant emerges. ... With the often heard assertion that behind all noise there is a "struggle for existence" and mutual fright, conquering or trying to assert oneself, there is basically nothing at all said. And not even by emphasizing that behind all the noise there is the necessary relaxation of strength and the need for active exercise of power and self-defense. - Such an increase in activity and self-expansion must ultimately be in everyone "Expression movement" can be found. You can therefore not die specific Explain the psychology of screaming and making noise. What is important, however, is thisthat in the noise we do not believe we are looking at an accidental accident of “increased traffic life”, not a mere historical symptom of the restlessness and homelessness of the modern soul, but the expression ineradicable, all-human Instinct. This one "Drive" to noise cannot be eradicated with police regulations and state measures. Assuming that in the future new means would always be found to make life in its external forms of expression relatively silent; assuming patents would be granted on devices that enable upholstered furniture and carpets to be knocked silently; Assuming the majority of civilized people would have become so musical that it was enough for them to write scores read; assuming, finally, one would even follow the suggestion of the biologist who recommended to cultivate the artificial muteness of domestic animals, “by repeatedly cutting through the recurrent nerves in order to produce soundless living beings through selection”; assuming that one had the most careful regulations to avoid street noise and all of the daily rattle of electric trains, steam trains, motor vehicles, automobiles - it would yet a large number of noisy people with all these safeguards of vulnerable nerves Lust disregard! They would make their carpets rather knock loudly! Would rather cracking the whip; would think much they would do without if they could not go about their business with singing, whistling and constant shouting. They would deliberately let sticks and umbrellas rattle against stakes and bars or proudly rattle across the market square with sabers and spurs, even if all of that would be dispensable and easily avoidable. A strange, indomitable one pulse is behind it, a "Urdrove ”, in which the pleasurable, positive character of the noise is based. It joins those innumerable all-human inclinations which the "anesthesia of consciousness", i. H. the constant deafening of the mute, consciously thinking mind and thus maintain the constant dream and intoxicating state of social life. ...

*     *     *


In a primitive, murky and still raw sphere we have all of them here same Resource that same Protection and braking device of the viability in front of the eyes, which (as we emphasized earlier), also of religion or music latest Imparts sanction and necessity for life. We can see through this connection more clearly if we compare the noise with alcohol, or with one of the many stimulants and narcotics, such as hashich, opium, cola, nicotine, or finally with those indispensable alkaloids of nutritional stimulants, for which no food hygiene, no abstinence movement ever completely because they satisfy organic needs and only in their respective dosage, in their quantitative or distributive use in the physical and psychological[WS 5] Household of a generation, Not but are in and for themselves dispensable and combative. All these stimulants or intoxicants serve exactly like noise to the instinctual and emotional spheres (i.e. the subjective Side of life) to make free, to expand and to rise momentarily. In other words: they serve to dampen, narrow and push back the intellectual, rational, conscious (ie “objective” functions of the soul). This, of course, takes place perfectly undisturbed only in those religious, musical or aesthetic value directions of culture to which just sober, dry, affective poor individualities tend to fall most uncritically as the compensatory powers of their rational, objective, personality-eroding life.

*     *     *


There is a serious connection behind all of these experiences. Already the oldest psychology (that of the Indians) has in the doctrine of dukha-satya, i. H. given primitive expression by the “identity of knowledge and suffering” of a fundamental observation. But religious knowledge was always linked to this knowledge Beforetraction and teleological Higherevaluation of the unconscious, self-forgotten, instinctive sides of life, compared to its rational profit points in knowledge and cognition, in ethical, intellectual and technical mastery of nature. Every thinking person is sometimes overcome by the suspicion that an eternal self-deception is necessary for all survival, that human life can only remain bearable against the background of permanent ignorance and dreamlike intoxication. The young and healthy person already carries this “intoxication” in their blood. The strong, young, lively lives in and of themselves in a normal drunkenness. He is therefore not lacking those stimulative powers which (with unconscious refinement) maintain a certain degree of daily anesthesia even in a waning, sobering, wise and powerless, wise and fearful life. -

*     *     *


All mental disorders that cannot be overcome or can no longer be overcome through conscious clarification can thereby be overcome so that one forgets them and does not look at them too closely. The knot at which life accumulates can not resolved rationally and has to be loosened again and again from time to time. Insofar as becoming conscious, paying attention, consciously perceiving stimuli, always narrowing and concentrating the soul movement on an individual "Points" closes in on itself, it is inherently associated with displeasure. “Consciousness” lacks at least that peculiar note of living power that is found in all experiences of the joy swings. Because, conversely, joy does not include concentration, but expansion of self-awareness within itself, up to the complete dissolution of itself, up to that Summit where the individual embraces everything and no longer consciously understands anything separate. In specie, wine is described as the source of oblivion or as a “worry breaker”, but one could finally get on with it each The pleasure experience (from enjoying a cigar to enjoying a symphony) study the moment of "loosening up the emotional side", this dampening of the watch Knowledge in the focus of which the affective energy of the soul builds up and painfully collects. But an endeavor from the waking awareness of oneself Come on to come is deeply rooted in every individual. Be it now that the chaotic immensity of the questions and problems becomes too great to be integrated uniformly into a To allow consciousness. Be it that one certain Content of consciousness with which the personality cannot come to terms can and which “like a threatening block” lies jammed in the consciousness and has to be swept away for a while. Be it finally that the vulgar person is conscious of himself as that of an empty, meaningless, petty or unsuccessful existence to fear Has. He always dedicates himself to the powers of the stunning with everything that the cultural society calls joy or pleasure. Man stunned enjoy the pleasures of the city and the street. Man stunned in the theater and salon. Stunned meditate and reason. In the usual art talk and philosophical chatter of the journals and newspapers. In sport or in flirting with “social work”. Goes numb with labels and conventional customs, in the luxurious restaurants of the big city, in poor cellars and taverns; in the rudest debauchery, in poetic flirtations and religious ecstasies. But what is most wonderful and proving for them need this intoxicating powers of life is, that is the The fact that the rational-conscious, ethical-intellectual attitude to life, which bears the character of effort, asceticism and work, can transform itself back from an artificial and initially unpleasant bond of life to a completely new type of stimulant. Also the job subordinates to that general tendency of consciousnessanesthesia. Even the “working” part of humanity seems to be monotonous with any kind of ethical-intellectual activity Anesthesia of self-awareness. The life of the most capable “duty men” has none other Sense than that, for six days with the individual consciousness job to numb, in order to gain the opportunity to do the same on the seventh with means of "amusement", or by means of music or religion. -

*     *     *


The noise Now it is the most primitive and clumsy, but at the same time the most general and widespread means of controlling consciousness. This is evident from its natural connection with alcohol. It turns out in the significant phrase that people like to move where there is "according to and funny”Is received ...

But now something very strange occurs! Those "narcotic functions" that we originally used as protective and defensive means contrary Having to look at "awareness" can lately become an irritant at a certain level of nervous relaxation For Become conscious. And this also applies to the noise. It is originally just refined law of the thumb and that revengethat the part of society that works with the hands takes the part that works with the head, for the fact that it is Laws gives. But same as a troubling thought or worry on that summit There is no longer any way out of their one-sided liveliness than that "one digs into them", surrendering to them completely and, as it were, in thinking himself If intoxicated or destroyed, then, conversely, any means that overwhelm consciousness can ultimately become a means of consciousnessincrease become. Such complicated and rare cases as the following just speak in favor of this seemingly my psychology of the noise drive, as the “drive to consciousnessretardation”, Punish lies ...

*     *     *


In Mozart's biography I read that the big man created in a narrow room amid the cheerful noise of his playing children. Of this noise he occasionally said that he only disrupted his production if a single Noise would draw attention, while the indeterminate loudness of the surroundings even had a stimulating effect on his creative instinct. - This is an often confirmed experience. Anyone who has traveled across the Russian steppe knows that you can sleep peacefully with whole packs of wolves howling, while one is screaming individual hungry wolf terribly alarmed and chased away sleep. The more colorless, indeterminate the sound is, the more disinterested it remains and the less awareness or “attention” it is able to bind. In Mozart's case, the only strange thing would be that the noise stimulating could have an effect on conscious creation, while we still use it as the weapon against Try to appreciate "awareness" as a means of numbing. I now read something very similar in the autobiography of John Stuart Mills. This uncommonly conscious, almost pathologically alert mind used to set up a drum in a room next to his study at a time of dull nervous apathy; then a boy had to make a loud noise. Mill claims that this roar has recently been able to stimulate his slack mind. Nonetheless, he felt everything specific Noise as very annoying. He said that a lot of noise can stimulate just as much as the individual noises distract. Hegel, who (allegedly) completed his main work on the evening of the Battle of Jena and wrote under the thunder of nearby artillery, said that the equalmoderate noise sharpened and inspired his thoughts. So these would be cases where noise is apparent Not mind-numbing, but on the contrary has worked-conscious-being-strengthening. I look for the explanation for this in the following. - A thought activity that is not very affective or practiced at a time of psychological exhaustion requires a certain amount of abnormal stimulation and stimulation in order to be able to raise and release as much "psychic energy" as is necessary to even a thought to take up... I see something related in the psychology of "falling asleep" and falling asleepcan s. Sleep is his nature after a dampening and degradation of conscious imagination. Nevertheless he can Not enter where the life of consciousness and imagination is already so exhausted and degraded that the strength to concentrate one individual Imagination is no longer enough[1]. It is therefore sometimes found that medicinal stimulants, which would prevent the "normal individual" from falling asleep, conversely, in exhaustion psychoses, serve to restore the ability to fall asleep. Here, in the psychology of noise, we now encounter something analogous. While the noise of his nature to no allows conscious thinking to arise, but only acts on feeling and will (and therefore also as popular noise, battle cries, barditus, hurray and hipp-hipp roar to remove the reflection and to awaken the Willing is used), - but in certain abnormal cases the noise can also serve to measure that affective liveliness trigger that is necessary to Not To be able to pick up and hold onto emotional, abstract thoughts. Yes, it is possible that in individuals who are used to external unrest, the absence of acoustic stimuli with the volitional will also completely ruin their life of consciousness. This is where the well-known “psychosis of silence” belongs. That despondency and dejection that especially the big city dwellers in the Alps suffer! Also such Provinces of the soul, to which the noise would in and of itself be hostile, decay in complete absence all Noises of general psychological paralysis, because there is no hourly “cackling” to which humans of the acoustic-motor type (of the “kinetic type” as the American psychologists say) have long been accustomed to customized Has. But these are Exceptions from the general rule that noise is an effective weapon in humans anti- intellectual powers of the soul against the intellectual one is ...


Second chapter.
Noise and culture.
“Politeness and decency forbid shouting and tears. The active bravery of the first rough age of the world has turned into a suffering one ... Bite all pains, look forward to the prank of death with a fixed eye, die laughing under the bites of the adder, weep neither for your sin nor the loss of your dearest friend, are trains of the old Nordic heroism ... Not so the Greeks! ... He wants to teach us that only the civilized Greek can cry and be brave at the same time, whereas the immoral Trojan, in order to be so, must first stifle all humanity. "

A never-ending chain of agony and torment runs through the lives of all people who work with the brain. In the midst of the inexhaustible noise that gives our short, quickly escaped life the character of the stock exchange or trade fair, we breathe under the pressure of a need that no one understands and no one feels for us. We know that there will never be maturity within us, what silence and loneliness, independence and calm will bring to maturity necessary would have. We struggle in vain to gain concentration in order to pursue ideas and moods "in the realm of the inaudible" which, like Merkutio's Queen Mab, only come from the cobweb on a chariot; more delicate, more fleeting, more intangible than the dust on the butterfly's wing. The hammers roar, the machines rattle. Meat and bakery carts roll past the house early in the day. Countless bells ring incessantly. A thousand doors open and shut. A thousand hungry people, ruthlessly greedy for power, success, satisfaction of their vanity or crude instincts, haggle and scream, scream and argue in front of our ears and fill all the streets of the cities with the interests of their trades and their gain. Now the phone rings. Now the Huppe announces an automobile. Now an electric car rattles past. A train goes over the iron bridge. Across our aching head, across our best thoughts. Fetching up and pursuing objective values ​​becomes an ordeal. Noisy mob breaks into every spiritual, every theoretical creation and the practical "interest" of noisy mob. All mental strength is used to overcome these eternal tensions. The lack of healthy, deep sleep breaks our nerves. The possibility of our work was destroyed before we even began to work. Every moment a new unpleasant noise! Carpets and beds are being knocked on the balcony of the rear building. Craftsmen are ramming one floor up. In the stairwell, someone is hammering nails into what appears to be an iron-studded box. Children fight in the next house. They howl like Indians, they drum on the doors. A “big cleanup” is imminent; I flee to the village. There is currently the "Schützenfest". A carousel is being set up just outside my window. This rotates for eight days and plays the song of "dumb love" for eight hours on each of these eight days. I'm fleeing into that next Village. The inn seems to be quiet; but tomorrow morning at five o'clock the chimney sweeper arrives “just by chance”. A steam plow pursues me, the sound of the threshing floor, the hammering of the boilermaker, the constant complaint of the chain dog, the love life of all kinds of creatures, cats, chickens, frogs. In addition, clattering shutters, loose roof tiles rattling in the wind, weather vanes, wind harps. - I have no choice but to follow Multatuli's advice, I'll steal someone's pocket watch to at least get some rest in the cell prison ...

*     *     *


Dear Reader! Go into the deepest, most remote alpine valley, you will surely come across a gramophone. Escape to an oasis in the Sahara desert, you will find an entrepreneur who is just setting up a jukebox there with chimes and drums. Not on the Halligen, not in the Pontine swamps, you are sure that “I come from the mountains” will suddenly roar towards you. There is no happiness for people even in the most sacred nature of God without shouting and noisy uttering! In some areas of Germany where a strong hotel industry has recently flourished, e.g. For example, in Upper Bavaria, in Tyrol, in Saxon Switzerland, the noise pollution is so terrible that an entire valley, up and down hills, is crammed with instruments of torture, such as beat zithers, guitars, mandolins and bad pianos. Everywhere where people thrive, superfluous and countless like sturgeons, rabbits or tapeworms, everywhere yelling and noise that desecrates the innocence of the beautiful landscape! Where a few years ago the sleeping Pan protected you, the air seemed to tremble with silence and silence and nothing could be heard but a cricket and a bee and where only when the wind blew away the sound, a modest little bell from grazing cattle or the shepherd's boy contemplative flute sounded from a long way off - today the Berlin hotelier is installing the latest phonograph for an international audience so that every child from Frankfurt or Liverpool can hear the "move into the Wartburg" for ten Heller. One can soon overhear on the Jungfrau how “Mr. Caruso in New York” sings the “Hymn to Solitude” in the phonograph. Every modest drift will be littered with boarding houses and villas. In each of these “villas” a piano and an idle lady from Leipzig will soon come together. Beautifully painted names such as “Waldeszauber”, “Bergfried”, “Alpenrose”, “Tiefeinsamkeit” and “Käthchens Ruh” are emblazoned on the so-called villas. You can also paint entire sayings on it, such as “my house, my castle” or “Sweet home, happiness alone”. And these inscriptions correspond to the pension prices. Advertisements announce that there is an Eldorado of peace and happiness to be forgiven. And truly, too the The moment is not far away when the last South American jungle is criss-crossed with the sound of the steam whistle and the electric bell. And wherever the “progress” and the “educated European” go, it becomes “noise put". Yes, it seems the noise is the deepest characteristic of man absolutely to be. Because the first thing a "person" does as soon as he comes into life is to scream begins. This scream is the specific one anthropological Moment by which he stands out from the lowlands of the speechless and dumb-born being. No animal screams so incessantly after leaving the womb. Only humans are naturally screaming creatures. And he remains consistently true to his nature until his death, which is still too late. He screams with his entire existence. He even screams when he's silent. He invented a roaring silence, so to speak. In art too, in science too, people everywhere just shouted. One shouts in magazines, newspapers, journals, because these are nothing more than continuous, incessant public beating of beds and carpets. Even the most chaste things are "discussed". What is there that they didn't "talk" about? And even in their tender confidences, they scream at each other! Nothing, nothing is more difficult for people than silent to die. And yet is this the whole content of their "culture" is that Only one, whereby a person can distinguish himself and rise from the unfathomable swarm of natural beings. It is said that language, or even that the inkwell, distinguishes him from soulless, sensual cattle. Better to say that only silence secretes. A deep wisdom lies in the fact that with Homer the Trojans go into death throes with great cries of battle, while the Greeks go into the final battle without a sound.

2.[WS 6]

It is the most important characteristic of culture that it suppresses the "immediacy" of emotional impulses. If we look at the "uneducated", "natural" person, we find that he spontaneously "takes a position" on everything and everyone in sympathy and antipathies, that he "reacts" to every encounter in a loving or hateful manner, with pleasure and displeasure. maintains. On the other hand, the more cultivated and educated a person is, the more likely they are to be cautious about "suspending" their judgment. Experience and judgment teach tolerance. Awe and shame dictate constant restraint. - What I (above) called the "spiritualization" of life, but could also have called rationalization, logization, ethization, or, in short, "culture", expresses itself first and foremost in the stricter connection of all impulses of feeling and wanting. Loving or hating people becomes more indirect. The relationship between man and man, like the relationship between the “subject” and his “object”, experiences a constantly growing “distancing”. If, in the beginnings of culture, personal and material things have melted into one another so closely that the individual could not be detached from accidental, historical relationships into which he or she falls through birth and chance, then it is up late On the contrary, stages of life are the span between man and his world more objective Goals and purposes have become so powerful that the "objective" with iron inexorability as an independent power that excludes everything subjective and emotional to man is iron and cold across fromstands. That is why the soul becomes more and more lonely. The primitive Education, which lives everywhere in the middle of nature and in the midst of people like you, immediately shapes every impression into judgment, every judgment immediately becomes an act. Immaturity is quick to deal with anything and everything. Because it is the right of young people to judge everything according to whether it is good for them or Not. Maturity, on the other hand, and in it the growing biological element Age of the human race is documented above all in the ability to comprehend many things, which from the point of view of natural vitality includes just as much a practical danger, a biological weakening, as it is seen from the point of view of culture as a true flower of humanity admire got to. The taming and spiritualization of nature now makes itself felt above all in the reduction of noise! It asserts itself in the growing remain silentthat surrounds us as an expression of growing wisdom and justice. - It is instructive to compare types of peoples with different domestication of the soul in this respect. First of all, it turns out that the difference between noisy or taciturn external life is related to the question of whether a population has more of the playing or the working Culture. Where man is still the great playing child on earth (among the tribes of Africa, Asia, Australia and in the Romanesque south of Europe), there is definitely sensual loudness and colourfulness that are out of proportion to the completely banal Purposesthat are sought and achieved through all this effort of noise and sensual stimulus. The southerner makes noises out of vain desire to be numb. He makes noises with pleasure. He quite naively exercises the instinctuality of numbing functions, which at the same time as the rational consciousness and "purposefulness" also the Pain gets out of the way of existence. The terrible noise that presses into all thoughtful and solemn hours of southern life, the screaming with which these childish people bury their dead, divide their blows of fate, pass on their worries and spread and dig up all their shortcomings and torments in front of one another, yes Revenge the most personal wounds loudly and publicly against one another - this whole screaming and noisy machine corresponds to that primitive “tendency to Convenience of life“, Just the one the same There is a tendency that at more complicated, more difficult, more work-intensive stages of life, only conscious economization of strength can do enough can. This naive noise therefore has, without exception and everywhere, a natural connection with spontaneous noise Waste or with a life luxuriant Idleness. The more playful and unrational the child's existences are, the more so louder As a rule, forms of life will be used up. All living forces that are not harnessed in "sanctions" and have not adjusted to positive, life-sanctifying and determining goals, they "fizzle out" in an orgy of incessant carnival. The whole of life still seems to be mummery, arbitrariness and senselessness; Frenzy or all kinds of vague enthusiasm; misunderstood or incomprehensible fanaticism; desert and wild addiction to demolition! And behind all this noise and din of the large, pointless crowd there is an irrepressible, baseless sense of self. The fear and escape from boredom on the one hand and on the other hand the lively joy in inner relaxation of excess and lingering forces - they let off steam in forms of the highest complacency. It is unmistakably characteristic of this inner connection between noise and human will to power and activity that each legal action about noise (which ruthlessly kills so many pure surveys, so many irretrievable hours of the human race), which most people immediately respond to with a fine smile of gleefully pleased pleasure. In this faint smile hides the secret satisfaction that a complaint about an ailment is always the acknowledgment of one Makes involved. For the pleasure of being able to inflict subtle pain on one's own kind or even higher-level beings is consistently one for the raw, primitive, common human will headmotive that makes him scandal and noise on all conceivable occasions as his natural Weapon of life lets grab. Only with her does he know how to "assert himself", to harass others, and ultimately to make them morally dead ...

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Lichtenberg said of the noise that he was just him then would find unbearable if he could not see or approve of the "purpose" of disturbing noises. Therefore, whenever he hears a bunch of useless boys clamoring in front of his door, he vividly imagines that he is same Noise of the the same Boys, perhaps I will serve to drive the French or English out of the field in national struggle. That used to vote him more conciliatory against the noisy people. I actually call that really Nordic-rational thought! - As if not all Youth noise from children and peoples its “purpose” and its “justification” in itself himself carry ?! The “justification” of the completely ineffable noise in Italian cities, the sanction of the innumerable completely dispensable noises (which already the painter's epic Bronzino tried to enumerate tragicomically) - they lie exclusively in the instinctual Joyfulness, with which all the noisy existences, these fruit dealers, peddlers, lemonade sellers, beggars, lazzaroni, good-for-nothing, impostors and naive crooks, scream their pleasure in the sun into the blue skies[2]. - On the other hand, consider the face of intellectual and ethical cultures! The late biological-ancient civilization of the learned Chinese, the pious Buddhist, the educated Turk, it proves itself above all in the silent, admirable self-control and contemplative calm that lies over the whole life of truly educated people. One does not believe that the crude observation that scolds the distinguished Asians phlegmatically and apathetically is correct. Sudden, unexpected outbreaks of long pent-up and forced fanaticisms refute this imposition. The Asian is powerful and passionate; but at the same time internally more disciplined and bound than the young European peoples on average are used to. That is why the consecration of mute dignity and reverence floats over the life of later Buddhists. It documents that superior rationalization of instinctual life, which man can only thank the school of need, only a long, gender-long suffering. - This “superiority of the intellectualization of instinctual life” is also expressed in the unequal psychological disposition of the Genders. The woman is always and everywhere "more rational" than the man. The psychological difference between the female and male representatives of the same type Always runs on unequal intellectuals binding psychic energies. I have represented this immensely important psychological truth in writings and lectures for many years. But I by no means call it the “rationality of psychological experience” objective Consciousnesscontent. I mean Not any factual knowledge and educational moments, even some exercise in the functions conscious Thinking. The woman only has an older and higher one Soul culture. She owes it to her long inhibition outer Power development. It is documented in the more purposeful economy of life forces, in the greater self-control and sustainability of female natures. But it is precisely this silent overcoming of life that gives man his special, human character Would. She is the goal all Upbringing and spiritual gain all Culture. Because education is education for remain silent. And culture teaches "suffering without complaint".The well-educated, cultured person (regardless of what content, objective, material culture he belongs to and what level of knowledge and education he persists) will always and everywhere be characterized by silence and hostility to undisciplined, noisy lifestyle.

3.

Culture is evolution into silence! - Blessed rest lies above all that is perfect. In chaste silence all the great works of mankind are enveloped in sublime silence soaked. This has to do with everything in the area undoubtedly Value lies beyond the Fight must stand whose intrinsic stigma is noise and loudness. In the “world of the undoubted” there is none dispute. So I already know plato to say nothing more characteristic of his heaven of pure ideas than that there are none in his spheres Sounds hear. Because all noise is rooted in some kind of struggle for life, be it in the form of competition or in the form of defense. Noise is nothing more than a great dispute with which one creature tries to impress the other. And even behind the most subtle kind of diligent noise there is still the will to power and the imperfection ... An old saying goes that “dogs that bark the loudest, bite the least”; - In fact, it has been shown that everything that is noisy or seeks to be frightened by the noise of the safety of the Winner furthest away. But every living being fights with weapons that need and fate lend him. The insect that cannot smell like the lily has at least the power to defile it. And so every wagoner who practices the refined law of the fist of making noise can break thoughts in the head of even a tasso. With this he defends himself against the power of the spirit, which also be Live slowly in the painful bondage of the Culture want to forge. So note what the mass of the people is used to arguing and fighting with, always and everywhere! In every popular assembly, the lungs decide. They show their “worldview” to unpopular statesmen by hooting. Unpopular scholars boycott them through "cat music". Nothing else does the compact majority take part in insurrections and revolts, indeed in all unusual moments in history, than with incessant shouting. And those who prove to be the most pathetic and cowardly in ability and deed are the cheekiest and loudest screamers! No misfortune is fought in silence, no fight is fought in silence; everything has to ring! Everywhere in human society people lament, meditate, pray, beg and cry. Because these are means with which suffering and problems can be numbed, with which every conflict can be passed on to others. But everything that the person still discusses points to one wish, but not on possession. - If only the vital energy that is wasted in chauvinistic self-esteem and patriotic talk at one of our rifle, gymnast and singer festivals, daily and hourly in the service of productive nationalists job were asked, then the German people could soon be the noblest and best of all peoples! But it is the unmistakable sign of our national immaturity that too many things are noisy, willed and spoken in our country, while cultural property and maturity would be silent and do. It is symbolic that the safest and noblest culture there is today, the culture of the English gentlemen, speaks the most succinct, plain and quiet language. The language of a Polynesian island tribe used in everyday life more Words, images, tropes and metaphors as the concise and unadorned language of the great, modern English thinkers. When we Germans on the sublime works and people of the present, on the writings Nietzsches, on the dramas Wagner's are rightly proud, future generations could nevertheless also be in them too much rhetoric and “kakozelie” to find it as the expression of true cultural Maturity to be able to appreciate. The superiority of the quieter English culture, which has called “never interrupt” the eleventh commandment and which created a real blessing for brain workers in the puritanical sanctification of Sunday, is shown above all in the fact that it makes people better Listen teaches. It is not common for youthful peoples and people to suffer from lack of the art of language. On the other hand, they always lack the art of listening. With us talks everything. Most of all our heads of state. And nobody has Ears, nobody understands to hear ...

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4.

Infinitely preferred and amiable are the rare people who confront an object that stimulates them, without the need to put themselves in rapport in person. A beautiful flower has to be picked and smelled, a graceful child has to be kissed and caressed. A rare animal is soon teased and touched; a beautiful woman molested and harangued. - When the common Roture confronts a superior spirit, a richer, stronger, more powerful one, its only effort is unmistakably that it only "makes an impression", "takes it seriously", is "estimated", while the truly educated person is precisely that Silently hold back towards the better off, but learn and receive everywhere. He'd rather speak to letthan speak. It is indifferent to him what people believe and think of him. He feels too; that it is the right of decent people to be allowed to “embarrass themselves” at least three times a day without prejudice to their “authority”. But now look at what everyone likes and what they all read and write. Look at all of this "talking about". This mutual reflection, dissection, observation. Everything from the perspective of power-willing vanity and the joy of not recognizing others need or in “acknowledging” yourself self to give a slide. Most “publicism” lives from these crudest forms of soul competitor. But even most serious books that have any fashion successes definitely want to "educate mankind", fanatical and exert moral influence through screaming and noise. And what is not fully preached, noisy and corrected in educational institutions and universities! In the end one gets the impression that all the world has to do is to have a say, to be part of it and to exercise noisy power. This is also indicated by the nonsensical, German arrangement of the "discussion" - when, for example, after the artistically closed lecture by an expert Hinz and Peter get up to market something irrelevant, confused or confusing, unsuspectingly and self-confident, which immediately "makes it into the newspaper." comes ”. How few suspect that everything Talking includes error. The It is a mistake that there is no "distance" from an object in which one is directly alive ...

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At the summit, culture carries the ideal of omniscient silence. That end, which Fiesole showed in the image of Peter Martyr. - It lies in its own truth that religion, too, is the last paradise promised to us and “eternal bliss” as a “refuge of Silence“, On the other hand depicts hell as a place of constant noise. - A loud word is no longer spoken in Hades. Even the rudder of the Charon does not make a sound in silent waves. The last noise that leaves the departing one is the call of the souls waiting on the bank, longingly waiting for the redeeming boat. In the “Christian heaven”, of course, it does not go without trumpets and angel choirs and the terrible prospect of transfigured, singing and feasting Philistines. At least the descriptions of the hellas the church fathers design, a condemnation of earthly noise that is all the more energetic. Their descriptions revel in the terrible cries of hell that the vengeful devils raise and in the demonstration of the misery that "makes the sinful poor souls sound" ...

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Dante was already singing about the invention of a devil. A monstrous, ghastly roaring bell that is rung day and night. The poor victim is strapped to her sound jacket. The bells of the bell incessantly hit his ear, so that the whole body has to shake with it, until finally the madness brings redemption to the tortured. That is the true symbol for the noise of our generation ...


Third chapter.

The sensitivity of the ear.


“Does the roaring storm make you uneasy?
Two kinds of hope remain in your head,
To get through the din
Or out of the din. "
Rückert.

An endless crowd of martyrs against the noise walks past us: All the spiritual leaders, all the spiritual representatives of the human race who have suffered from eternal torture, whose brains have been worn down by the iron hammer day after day of their short lives. - "I think", so says Schopenhauer in his Philippika against noise and noise, “Complaints about the pain caused by the noise caused to thinking people, in the biographies or other reports of personal statements of almost all great writers, e. B. Kants, Göthes, Lichtenbergs, Jean Pauls, yes, if any of these should be missing, it is simply because the context did not lead to it ”. - There are, however, undoubtedly intellectual workers who are due to an extraordinary sensitivity of hearing and an abnormal irritability to noises more than any other people suffer from the noise. These are almost always individuals of a specific acoustic-motor type, just as in people who work mainly mentally and abstractly, hearing is used to a far greater extent than the eye and is vicarious for some performances and abilities of the visual sense. Everyone can find out through self-observation whether he is more of the acoustic or the visual type. B. Before going to sleep, he is mainly filled with visual images or sounds and word ideas, whether in his memory of past experiences more that picture and the physiognomics of the incident or an associated "sense" and abstract "interest" tends to stay alive. As a rule, you will notice that increased sensitivity to acoustic impressions requires greater introspection of the spiritual experience ...

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The life of Thomas Carlyle shows an unusual, even pathological irritability of the auditory sense, which could be referred to as a peculiar "noise neurosis". For him the noise played a tragicomic and grotesque role. For the fact that Thomas Carlyle himself made quite a noise in his writings (although he, how Spencer tells, prefers to - loved to talk about "holy silence"), but he was severely punished by the subjective agony that his sensitivity to noise caused him. It is almost fair to say that the diaries and letters of Jane Welsh Carlyle, (one of the most brilliant English women), are about nothing and nothing but the continued concern of keeping her hypochondriac husband getting better sleep and quiet work opportunities for generations to come had to. The question of how “He” slept last night decided the happiness or unhappiness of each of her days, indeed, each hour of her poor life. And a trifle, a nothing, the cackling of a chicken, a truck rolling by, the distant ticking of a clock was enough to destroy Carlyle's sleep. - Tyndall tells in his fond memories of a trip he made with Carlyle. When he stepped into Carlyle's room one morning, he found him completely transformed, radiant, as if transfigured. He didn't know enough to do in expressions of thanks for his good friend, whose care he believed he owed eight hours of sound sleep. He definitely wanted to buy the bed and take it with him to Scotland, in which he had slept so well. It is half touching and moving, half funny or outrageous to read the tricks and tricks poor Jane had to use to give this extremely capricious, completely obnoxious man the necessary silence. For although he lived in the best of circumstances, pampered and cared for in the deepest seclusion in a lonely house in Chelsea, he continually complains of a lack of silence. The young roosters and chickens that disturb his morning rest are bought up for heavy money; Delicate attentions prompted young women not to practice the piano during his stay, because at the first note the sorrowful Carlyle gets angry and begins his constant lamentation: “With this noise I can neither think nor exist.” A dog that presumed to kill in the bud by howling to assassinate ideas aimed at the price of human heroism and the salvation of the English people, is carried away with cunning after his master, a nearby schnapps distiller, has been bribed with a few bottles of fine wine. Although Carlyle's study has double walls, between which a sound-absorbing layer of peat is deposited, the silence necessary for work and sleep never seems to prevail, and with every new book the great writer dreams of it in a desert or on a ship alone to be allowed to write lonely in the ocean. It was a certain, not uncommon form of autosuggestion that made Carlyle's life bitter. The only reason he did not sleep was because his attention was one-sided habitually focused on thinking up insomnia. He doesn't feel satisfied when he sees no reason to be dissatisfied. The worst thing in such cases, however, is the suggestive power of such unusually energetic "moral dyspeptics". Carlyle's influence on others added that his form of neurasthenia carried over to those around him. Because he couldn't sleep, his whole house didn't sleep, for nothing can be learned or unlearned so easily than sleep ... Carlyle had a very peculiar kind of fellow sufferer in the mathematician Babbage. This too suffered from an idiosyncrasy against noise. This, however, referred to a very specific type of noise, namely the sound of barrel organs, which are extremely common in English villages. The barrel organ song made Babbage tearful and unable to work. That is why he decided once and for all a part of his income to buy up all the organs that could be heard anywhere in his district. This soon became known and prompted a general emigration of the organ men to the area where Babbage lived. There they tried to sell their old, playful instruments as dearly as possible ... Goethe reports that in his youth he did not want to let the sensitivity to noise get away and that he moved into Strasbourg behind the soldiers' drum to slowly harden his sensitive ear to noise. But it was of little use to him. Because Goethe too remained very sensitive to every kind of noise and noise throughout his life. In the quiet, idyllic little Weimarland, under the happiest and most dignified living conditions under which a poet was ever allowed to create in Germany, he nonetheless had to constantly complain of unrest and noise. Yes, at his age he bought a dilapidated house next to his, just so as not to have to listen to the noise while he was being repaired. - We find furthermore in the biography of Byron, Shelley, Beethoven, Schiller, Musset, Viktor Hugos, Zolas explicitly mentioned and confirmed by an abundance of individual traits that they were susceptible to noise and suffered greatly from noise. In Konrad Ferdinand Meyer's biography, his sister mentions that even as a boy he expressed an over-great sensitivity to noises. Peter Hille also reports an almost quirky move from his own youth. He couldn't stand shotguns and whistles and never went to the theater because he was afraid of hearing unexpected shots or whistles. - Heinrich Heine's aversion to noise was half tragic, half comic. He documents himself with true gallows humor when the poet in his "mattress tomb", where a thousand subtle noises torment him, draws up a will in which he decrees that he wants to be buried on the Cimetière Montmartre, but not on the nearby Père la Chaise, “Because it is quieter there and he will be less disturbed”.- We also hear from Richard Wagner, who in his letters, in addition to all his other lamentations, constantly laments about the noise and the concern for a quiet apartment, that he had broken glass and shards scattered under his window to keep the screams of children away from his apartment . Ms. Th. Vischer was also a wonderful fighter against the noise. In addition to colds, catarrh and influenza, the malice of the shirt and collar buttons and the "wickedness of the small objects", nothing has embittered him as deeply as noise. Half grim, half smiling, he fought against him. When, in the summer of 1877, the city garden was laid out next to the Stuttgart Polytechnic, in which a promenade concert took place during Vischer's summer lectures, he wrote armored articles in the “Neue Tageblatt” against the ruthlessness of his Swabian fellow citizens. One of these essays reads as follows: “In front of my audience, I will not need so many words. I don't need to prove science first silence requires that whoever performs them cannot scream with kettledrums and trumpets; there is no fear of encountering the disregard for science, which in this matter has appeared several times as a sad phenomenon in our capital city. ... I would also like to say a word about the annoyance of many of the local residents by the loud, long-lasting music; there are always other than educational establishments that do now do not want to listen to music because they need to be collected for other things, there are sick people, it happens that deeply mourning people stand around a deathbed, to whom the stormy invitation to joy seems like mockery. Music lovers, in particular, must wish that they shouldn't be intrusive, that they shouldn't raise themselves up and stretch out for long hours, where they may amuse some but annoy others. ”- Another time Vischer complained in a letter about a howling dog the following words: “My work demands strict concentration of the mind and this is purely impossible, while one has to listen to such pitiful sounds from an animal. Among all the disturbing noises it is precisely this which distracts the attention of those who have to be mentally occupied in a peculiar way from his work. You can get used to the noise that is associated with some craft, because there is no pity mixed in, these noises only cut into the ear, not into the soul. Anyone who has tried only once to study while the dog is crying nearby knows from experience that even during the breaks when the poor animal is silent, one cannot attain any intellectual concentration, because one always has to be careful when it starts again . "[3] - One of the strangest things to say about the sound of the music can be found in Kant. It reads as follows: “There is a certain lack of urbanity to music that, depending on the nature of its instruments, it spreads its influence further than is expected in the neighborhood and thus imposes itself, as it were harms the freedom of others except the musical society, which the arts that speak to the eyes do not do, in that one may only turn one's eyes away if one does not want to let in their impression. It is almost the same as dealing with the delight of a widespread smell. The one who pulls his perfumed handkerchief out of his pocket beats everyone around and next to him against their will and forces them, if they want to breathe, to enjoy them at the same time, which is why it has also gone out of fashion. ”- At last I can't deny myself To put a few sentences from an excellent pathologist, Georg Strickers, here: “In school you go to so much trouble to protect your eyes, why do you neglect the ears of young people? The location of most school buildings means that the roar of the street is painful and distracting to the ears of the students. Anyone who is not completely devoted and serious about their work knows what disruptions and superfluous efforts in thinking, learning and reading are caused by noise and noise of all kinds. However, there are people who, as they claim, can work mentally in the greatest noise. It's just their work and their spirit afterwards. The more finely a brain is formed, the more coarsely it is disturbed in its activity by pointless auditory impressions. ... The relaxation that the city dweller seeks over and over again in the mountains, in the country, by the sea is essentially a relaxation of his nerves, which are exhausted from the ear. He usually only notices what this noise means when he has been removed from it for a while. Then he hardly understands how to get used to the rattle of the baker's carts and butcher's wagons, which romp about in the morning, to the rumble and bells of the trucks, the horse-drawn trams, the electric trains that will soon follow them, to that Roar of the street cleaning machine, which in the dead of night replaces the other noise machines and thunders around the house of the tired citizen, to all the other terrible tones with which the light rail, the freight station, neighboring accumulators, etc. restlessly at all hours of the night the poet's word mock: "All around the city rests, the illuminated alley becomes quiet." Of course, one gets used to how one gets used to poison, which secretly undermines one's health and is no longer considered a poison until the sudden collapse of one's strengths teaches terribly. For a healthy adult with strong nerves, a few weeks of vacation each year may be enough to offset the harmful effects of the city bustle. The effects do not pass without harm to a child who has been haunted by the "pleasant voice of culture" for weeks and in sleep from the first days of its most tender youth. The greater frequency of encephalitis, the more severe course of febrile illnesses in the cities is only a more noticeable, not the most serious and general effect of city noise. "

2.[WS 7]

Although one can imagine that a living being can build up a “world” with other than the sensory organs known to us and orientate itself living in it and that it is therefore only “coincidence” if we meet with eyes and ears and not through any others understand incomprehensible senses unknown to us, but still prevails in development, elevation and mutual relationship given Sense the safest need. It seems to me to be out of the question here that the refinement of the human hearing is a complicated, evolutionary one later Level comes as even the most differentiated sensitivity to phenomena of light and color. The “world” of the ear is the richest and most subtle! The experiences of the ear are more delicate, varied and intense than anything that is experienced through the eye can. - But this is also related to the fact that the face is a wide bearer, younger and less ingrained sense than the hearing is and that reactions to sound stimuli tend to take place faster and more promptly than reactions to light and color stimuli. There is a strange relation that the more subtle and the more richly structured a class of sensations is, the stronger it is "Sensitivity" for just this area of ​​sensations must develop. This is the prerequisite for a even more carry out factual differentiation of the relevant sensory sphere on us can. But from this it follows that in every sense area there is susceptibility to quantitative Increase in stimuli at the same time as the ability to perceive new ones qualitative differences must grow ...

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It is an experience, which has been tried and tested in practice, that the same individual is responsible for the finest differences in a sensory area "sensitive" is, nevertheless, the coarsest Impetus needs to make these finest objective differences too to notice. - Therefore it can happen without contradiction that the finest psychological “irritability” with the worst objective coarsening of the stimuli, that z. B. the most delicate sense of color with the crudest misuse of color, or the finest hearing goes together with the most terrible noise and gets along well. - Just like a gourmet who only attracts you in the rarest of stimuli new Finding pleasure, ultimately converting to the most primitive pleasures, so in the realm of higher sensuality, internalization of feeling and roughness goes factual Expressions of sensation very often together. If I may take an example from an apparently remote sphere, I would like to point to the development of our theater being. In our theaters we always see coarseness and delicacy, wild sensational and colortage on the one hand and almost pathological intellectual finesse on the other together Pop up. It just seems like our nervous systems at the same time become dull and hyper-ethical. You are though susceptible for the slightest incentive and the slightest nudge suffice Yes, to trigger strong effects, but at the same time they need stronger ones "Occasions"so that this over-refined perceptionability de facto come into force ...

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This subtle connection now also returns in the history of the Noise again. We have become excruciatingly loud and excruciatingly musical at the same time. - If (according to Schopenhauer's statement) Thomas Hood of the Germans said for a musical people, they are the most noisy I ever met with, then there is probably a very incorrect observation behind it. Because dullness to noise and susceptibility to music, great noisy folk life and qualitative refinement of the hearing are by no means contradicting each other. Perhaps the finest musical ears are at home in parts of the city, from the din of which an unmusical cannibal would flee. The "natural person", who has a far more undisciplined and coarser hearing, is at the same time more attentive and aware of auditory impressions than the civilized person. It seems the other way around same Individuals tend to have extreme loudness in their outer life, which is also deep for the most spiritual intervals of music and for the most delicate natural noises (such as rustling in ripe grain, trickling rain on bushes and sand, crackling buds or rustling falling leaves) susceptible is. This modern person seems to be so "nervous" that only the very soft or the very loud noise is made to him tie up able. Just sensory impressions, so to speak middle Line he passes into habit-grown dullness ...

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The development of modern music in particular points to this remarkable juxtaposition of delicacy and loudness! Isn't it downright monstrous when recently 20,000 soloists of both sexes, 2,000 orchestras and several hundred steam organs performed at an international music festival in Boston? - And when I read in today's newspaper that Kaiser Wilhelm first enjoyed a piece of cannon from Wildenbruch yesterday evening and then “Wer hat dich du schön Wald” from 1200 singing German men’s throats, but this morning again through the “homage march from Schultze executed by all the chapels of the garrison ”, then I am filled with half-way amazed admiration for such a nervous system, halfway with great sympathy. - And hasn't opera since Richard Wagner finally achieved a “dynamic” that apparently makes demands on the responsiveness of the cultivated ear that can no longer be surpassed? - Nevertheless, this development towards loudness is with a decisive one refinement of hearing gone together!

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One often reads the claim that “animals” (especially cats and fallow deer) “have a finer ear than humans”. That is completely wrong. We do not know of any living being whose hearing system is as fine and complicated as the human one. However, we do notice a greater susceptibility to noises in many animal species because their “attention” is still one-sidedly focused on sound perception. A large part of the animal world is constantly forced to use the ear to orient itself for the sake of food and safety. But man would straighten out fortune his higher nervous irritability perish in a short time if he wanted to de facto apperceive all noises that are perceived by his hearing or that are perceptible to his ear. The necessity of getting used to ambient noises of all kinds, such as hissing, pushing, screeching, whistling and screaming, causes innumerable nerve cords to chronically slacken in humans due to constant vibration of the many hearing parts. His hearing finally becomes a purely sensory activity and the countless individual noises in the house and on the street no longer come into his knowing consciousness. In the habit of apperceiving only complex sounds, we ultimately no longer know what kind of “tones” sounds are made up of. Nevertheless, we hear all these tones and undertones more finely than any animal. Both the possibility the sound analysis, like the anatomical structure of our hearing organ. Humans have around 15,500 auditory cells and if we can only assume that each individual auditory cell is tuned to a different tone, with some practice we can differentiate at least 4000 tones with complete certainty. How fine a hearing is that can distinguish even 1000 tones from one another can be measured by the fact that our largest concert grand pianos only have 87 tones. Between the tones a and b alone, the normal human ear can perceive at least thirty further nuances. - The cat who apparently hears much more finely and in any case with the slightest tone responds, has only 1200; but the rabbit, which in turn hears more finely than the cat, has only 7000 auditory cells. All of this proves that the dullness of the human being towards low and medium-level noises in no way indicates a reduced susceptibility of his sense of hearing. One has to distinguish between the stimulation threshold and the expression threshold, the factual receptivity and the expression of receptivity.

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Nobody should believe, however, that the eternal swinging in the ear and brain, even if it is ultimately not considered to awaken awareness inhibition is felt and therefore no longer triggers reactions, now for human life and human health indifferent has become. Nature has wisely placed the snail and the organ of Corti deep in the cranial cavity, because it is the most complex and sensitive of all our organs and has the most intimate connection with the spiritual consciousness of the human race. This is also indicated by the developmental circumstance that its maturity and training require the longest period of time. For just as everywhere the more complicated comes to maturity later than the less complicated, so too does hearing come to its own at the same time as language full Development when every other sensual ability to react has already reached its peak is