What does flying mean

For the time being, the large traffic machines do not fly according to the instructions of the air traffic controller, as is usually the case, but initially in the lower airspace on sight. As in road traffic, the pilots operate according to the “see and be seen” principle. Certain avoidance rules are also required.

What does it mean,

flying on sight?

The basic principle of visual flight is that the pilot has sufficient visibility outside - flights in clouds, for example, are prohibited. However, visual flights are also possible at night; For this purpose, pilots must demonstrate special skills and have certain navigation devices on board. Regardless of the pilot's instructions, the pilot is himself responsible for the safety of the machine and passengers. He must keep a minimum distance to other aircraft and the clouds, but can rely on radio beacons or satellite navigation instruments.

Can airlines decide how to fly?

According to the German Air Traffic Control (DFS), airlines must apply for a visual flight permit from the Federal Aviation Office when transporting people with aircraft weighing more than 14 tons.

Are the pilots totally

on your own?

Air traffic control currently only transmits information to the pilots in the lower airspace, but not flight routes. After take-off, the pilot can decide with his own hands whether or not to change his course - for example because of clouds. From an altitude of 3000 meters, the so-called controlled visual flight begins, in which the air traffic controllers also pay attention to the distance between the machines and report the positions. After about ten minutes they reach an altitude of around 6000 meters. From this point on, the flight will be conducted as usual - according to instrument flight guidelines. The flight will then be controlled again by the controllers in German airspace. At this level there are currently hardly any restrictions in airspace across Europe. Even when approaching for landing, the machines need around ten minutes to reach the ground from a height of 6000 meters in visual flight.

Can the planes of the

Dodge the ash cloud?

The planes cannot fly around the volcanic ash. According to air traffic control, they also have to pass through layers of air that have been reported as contaminated.

What the consequences

does flying without a pilot?

In visual flight, significantly fewer aircraft can be on the move at the same time than under the control of air traffic control, which otherwise stagger them at different heights and distances. When entering protected areas around the major airports, pilots must register. Controlled visual flight takes place here. (dpa)