What is the soul of islam

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In contrast to the spirit, the soul is the part in the human heart that has been placed under his own control, his "I" so to speak. The aim of Islam is to overcome the "I" to a common "we" in small things in marriage and in large parts in devotion to God.

All human beings, including men and women, were created from a single soul (cf. Holy Qur'an 7: 189).

As a rule, the scholars differentiated four stages of soul development in the Holy Qur'an, which correspond to human development.

  1. The commanding soul [al-nafs al-'amara]: That state is the starting point. Like a wild horse, the soul first tries to gain control over the "rider" and even "throw him off". He commands the uncontrollable and harmful and must be "tamed". Even the pure and flawless prophets know this state of the soul, even if they control it and point to it, as e.g. Joseph (a.) In the Holy Qur'an "... And I am not declaring myself innocent. The soul commands evil with emphasis, unless my Lord has mercy. My Lord is Forgiving and Merciful." (12:52-53)
  2. The self-accusing soul [al-nafs al-lawwama]. At this stage the soul has such self-knowledge that it sees its own weaknesses and rebukes itself in order to overcome the "self" or the "I". This state of mind has already been developed in such a way that it is sworn on: "No, I swear on the Day of Resurrection. No, I swear by the soul that rebukes itself." (75:1-2)
  3. The inspiring soul [al-nafs al-mulhama]. At this stage the soul has the ability to differentiate between useful and harmful inspirations and uses this ability for its own development: "..and the soul and what it shapes and gives it its viciousness and its piety!"(91: 7-8). Freedom for this soul is the freedom of knowledge and the defense against what is harmful through knowledge and the acceptance of useful things through knowledge.
  4. The satisfied soul [al-nafs al-mutma'inna]. In its perfection, the soul achieves the satisfaction of ALLAH and is thereby also satisfied with the grace of satisfaction: "O you satisfied soul, return to your master satisfied and accompanied by his good pleasure. Enter the ranks of my servants and enter my paradise." (89:27-29)

This division of the states of the soul can be found among other things in the book Nafs-ul-Mutmainna (the satisfied soul) by Ayatollah Dastaghaib Shirazi.

Further information on the soul is abundant: On the day of resurrection, each soul will stand alone (2:48, 2: 123) and each soul will be rewarded for what it deserves in righteousness (3:30, 3: 161).

No soul is burdened more than it can bear (2: 233, 2: 286, 6: 152, 7:42, 65: 7) but every soul will experience death (3: 185, 21:35, 29 : 57). They are messengers of God who then fetch the soul (6:61). And then each soul will know what it has done (82: 5).

Another mention of the term "soul" occurs in the Mubahala: "And if someone argues with you about it (the truth) after the knowledge came to you, say: 'Come here, let us call our sons and your sons our wives and your wives and our souls and your souls then we want to plead with Allah and punish the liars with Allah's curse. " (Holy Quran 3:61). The women of Islam were represented at the event of Fatima (a.), The sons of Islam by Imam Hasan (a.) And Imam Husain (a.) And the "souls" of Islam by Prophet Muhammad (s.) And Imam Ali (a.). From this fact some have inferred that Imam Ali (a.) And his own imam, the Prophet Muhammad (s.) Are "kinship".

In the epistle on rights (Risalat al-Huquq), Imam Zain-ul-Abidin (a.) Mentions the rights of the soul: "The right of your soul to you consists in placing it in the service of God; then you also give your tongue its right, your hearing its right; your sight its right; your hand its right; your leg its right; your belly his right; his right to your sex, and in all of this you seek help from God. "