How was the group area law implemented

racism

This head and skull print suggests that black people are lower on the evolutionary ladder, 1854, 1868

Organic racism

Charles Darwin, the founder of the theory of evolution, was based on the fundamental biological equality of different population groups. It is not uncommon for people with racist ideas to rely on scientific justifications for their ideas. Organic racism is racism based on biological characteristics such as real or perceived race. This was reflected in the European colonial empires. In British India, the highest position an Indian could attain was lower than the lowest position an Englishman could achieve.[Source?]

The white race was considered biologically by the whites themselves to be the highest evolutionary form of man.[Source?] Among them were the Arabs, Japanese, and Chinese, who had a rich tradition but had been surpassed by the whites in technical progress. There were Indians and blacks on the lowest steps. Jews formed a separate category after anti-Semites based on the forged report of the Protocols of the Kings of Zion. In it, they were described as adversaries trying to rule the world from the shadows, as murderers of Jesus Christ, or as parasites trying to rip hard-working citizens from their hard-earned money. The alleged biological elements (black hair, crooked nose, hump) were deliberately mixed here with religious / cultural racism.

Scientific racism

Scientific racism is the pseudoscience that justifies racism based on superiority and heredity.[10] Social inequality was omnipresent in Europe at birth and skin color was indistinguishable. In the colonies of the European powers, inequality was linked to skin color and this became one of the distinguishing features, even though part of the population was free of African ancestry.[Source?] White indentured servants were also treated very badly.[Source?]

The idea of ​​superiority was propagated by the great philosophers of the Enlightenment, such as z Hume, Seite and Hegel, although these were also criticized by, among others, Georg Forster who had been with James Cook's second trip. The Philosophies took the contradicting position on the one hand to propagate a universalism that one group is not exceptional to be able to make a hierarchical racial segregation in relation to the other and on the other hand, without having had contact with Africans. Hegel blamed Africans for an uninterested childlike nature and blamed himself for being a slave. Thomas Jefferson, one of the authors of the United States Declaration of Independence, was also a strong advocate of ideas such as that all human beings are created equal and civil liberties, but at the same time slave owners suspected that Africans were inferior.

classification

The four human species according to Linnaeus in 1735

Classification In science, despite the possible conflicts with Christianity, it was long dominated by the Aristotelianism. It offered systematic and comprehensive explanations, especially for the physical world. However, the scientific method came more and more imitation in modern times and that was also true for naturalists. The old division of Aristotle lasted a long time, although there were attempts at renewal. The most important of these was the Carl Linnaeus taxonomy. This was published in 1735 Systema naturae into which he divided nature into classes, orders, genders and species. Man also got sex like thatHappy discussed and was divided into four species, not in alphabetical order: H. Europaeus albesc., H. Americanus rubesc., H. Asiaticus fuscus and H. Africanus nigr.. In the tenth edition of 1758 Linnaeus gave Hippocrates temperament of every kind including temperament, the American cholericus, the European sanguineus, the Asiatic melancholicus and the African phlegmaticus. Americans would be guided by customs, Europeans by rites, Asians by opinions and Africans by arbitrariness. Buffon inaugurated Histoire naturelle a long essay on human diversity from 1749 that differentiates between four races, as does Linnaeus for geographical reasons. Buffon was the one who got the attention Lumières switched to a separate science that focused on humans and contradicted prevailing religious beliefs.[11]

The five varieties according to Blumenbach in the third edition from 1795 De generis humani varietate nativa::
Tungusae, Caribaei, Feminae Georgianae, O-Taheitae and Ethiopissae

For a long time the classification of Johann Friedrich Blumenbach are of great influence. He came in De generis humani varietate nativa from 1775 onwards, just like Linnaeus, to four varieties for geographical reasons, but some peoples shifted within these. The West Asians, North Africans, Lapps and Eskimos fell under Europe, while the last two fell under Asia in the third press. Based on James Cook's second voyage, it arrived in 1779 Handbook of Natural History Up to five races, in addition to the Caucasian, Mongolian, Ethiopian and American races also the Malay race. This subdivision would also apply to the different types of food production, namely agriculture, fishing, hunting and livestock. Like Buffon, Blumenbach stuck to the theory of degeneration, which said that all races had the same origin, but that non-Europeans were due to the climatic conditions that degeneration had occurred.

In addition to classification, there was also a hierarchy within natural history. This hierarchy has a long history associated with the scala naturæ certainly went back to Aristotle and in whom man had always been at the top of the ladder in Christianity as well. During the Enlightenment, this ladder was gradually stripped of its theological aspect, but it was initially believed that there was a linear evolution with man as a teleological result at the top of the ladder. More and more apes became known about it, also by anatomists like Petrus Camper. Camper was able to show that humans were different from the great apes, arguing that, unlike humans, there was no evolutionary continuity, Hume's Touchstone. Camper also opposed polygenism, according to him humans were a single species. However, as the Bible's authority on these matters waned, it was believed that evolutionary continuity became more and more likely. So Jean-Baptiste de Lamarck saw a development towards bipedy if great apes were forced to come out of the trees.[12] The publications of Charles Darwin from About the origin of the species in 1859 and The descent of man in 1871 evolution also clearly made a continuum involved. For example, ideas about the hierarchy of animals and humans were mingled, and it was assumed that Africans would represent an ape-to-human connection in a linear evolution.

This was established with craniometry which extended to phrenology, whereby the message of works such as those of Linnaeus and Darwin was lost and elements of which were used selectively. Based on the dimensions of skulls, statements were made about characters from entire population groups. Although phrenology was supposed to be practiced for some time, it was already criticized as a pseudoscience at that time. However, those who advocated European superiority also drew useful pointers from it. The phrenologist George Combe suggested The constitution of man In order to achieve the greatest perfection, good germs had to be started, thus anticipating eugenics.

Volkish nationalism

Arthur de Gobineau tells in Essai sur l'inégalité des Race Humaines (Treatise on the Inequality of Human Races) from 1853-1855 that favorable natural conditions did not lead to superior cultures, but that superior races produced them. Gobineau also saw three races - white, yellow, and black - in which, by God's will, the white race would have the greatest beauty and intelligence. However, due to racial mixing, according to Gobineau, thirty-eight sub-races had emerged from the three races. This would affect the superior culture and this degeneration was therefore undesirable. Of the sub-races, Aryan race would still know the greatest racial purity, but are doomed to ruin if they are further mixed with the formation of a European empire was accompanied. In France, however, Gobineau's prophecy of doom met with little response.

Richard Wagner came in Judaism in Music from 1869 with an artistic anti-Semitism. Composers like Felix Mendelssohn and Giacomo Meyerbeer, whoever helped him in his career would make superficial music because of their race

With the composer Richard Wagner Gobineau developed a friendship. In contrast to Gobineau, Wagner believed that the Aryan race was not doomed to failure, but that regeneration would take place. Wagner had published under a pseudonym in 1850 Judaism in Music already demonstrated anti-Semitism and contributed to the idea that Jews could never really be part of the German nation. This happened in the context of romantic nationalism and ethnic nationalism. While Voltaire condemned the Jews for their alleged religious fanaticism and resistance to reason, romantic nationalists condemned them for alleged extreme rationalism. Under the influence of folk movement that grew into it Volkish nationalism.

Houston Stewart Chamberlain relied on Gobineau and in The foundations of the nineteenth century from 1899 Chamberlain portrayed the Indo-European or Aryan people as heirs of the Roman Empire. When Germanic tribes destroyed the Roman Empire, it was already in the hands of the Jews and other non-European peoples. Jewish financial affairs are supposed to underlie all wars. Jews and Aryans would be the only remaining pure races fighting for world domination where only one could succeed. While, according to Wagner, Jews could still become Germans through conversion, Chamberlain clung to a biological determinism that made this impossible. The basics was not only very successful in Germany, it was also praised abroad.

Institutional racism

Institutional racism (also known as structural racism, state racism, or systemic racism) is racial discrimination by governments, corporations, religions, or educational institutions, or other large organizations that can affect the lives of many people. The American civil rights activist Stokely Carmichael is said to have coined the term in the late 1960s. Institutional Racism Persisted Mr William Macpherson described the following in the 1999 Lawrence Report: The collective failure of an organization to provide adequate and professional service to people based on their skin color, culture, or ethnicity. It can be perceived in processes, attitudes and behaviors that amount to discrimination through unconscious prejudice, ignorance, thoughtlessness and racist stereotypes that disadvantage certain population groups.

Even in countries without an openly racist regime, groups can be systematically excluded or disadvantaged in areas such as housing, education and work. A member of the dominant group does not have to be racist or act to use the social structures and organizational patterns that favor the dominant group. Stokely Carmichael and Charles V. Hamilton mentioned this in 1967 Black Power: The Politics of Liberation institutional racism:

Racism is both overt and covert. There are two closely related forms: individual whites acting against individual blacks and acts of the entire white community against the black community. We call this individual racism and institutional racism. The first consists of overt acts of individuals that cause death, injury, or the violent destruction of property. This type can be recorded by television cameras. it can often be seen in the process of commission. The second type is less overt, far more subtle, and less identifiable in relation to the particular people doing the acts. But it is no less destructive to human life. The second type comes from the operation of established and respected forces in society and is therefore far less publicly condemned than the first type. [...]
Institutional racism is based on the active and ubiquitous impact of attitudes and practices against black people. There is a feeling of superior group position: whites are “better” than blacks; Hence, blacks should be subordinate to whites. This is a racist attitude that obscures and overtly permeates society at both the individual and institutional level.[13]

While the concept has made it possible to map processes that perpetuate discrimination without being overtly racist, it was also used to evade personal responsibility. This was the case with the London Metropolitan Police, among others, where institutional racism was cited as the main factor in the MacPherson report on the murder of Stephen Lawrence.[8]: 137 At the same time, the concept assumes a homogeneity within the many institutions in a society that does not do justice to the diversity that actually exists. The racism discussion is not alone in this. It Structure agency- Debate in the social sciences deals with the question of which factors have the greatest influence on people's behavior: social structure and socialization or Agency - the ability to act independently and make your own decisions. According to Ali Rattansi, it makes more sense in studies to mention racism in more detail In social research, on the other hand, the idea of ​​racialization, [...] Highlighting different degrees and types of racism is more useful than the concept of institutional racism.[8]: 138 Other derogatory attitudes should also be taken into account, such as rudeness towards women and gays. Reasons for this behavior can also be a combination of factors such as racism, class differences, and the portrayal of masculinity.

Though it is often too general in research and debate[Source?], it shows how racism can affect a society without being overly visible, such as criticism of multiculturalism. Instead of forced segregation, this can be informal separation. Institutional racism can also be useful for formulating concepts, e.g. B. irrelevant entry requirements for an apprenticeship or a profession. This also includes the cumulative nature of inequality. A combination of few economic, cultural and social capital with poor housing, little education and local employment counteract social mobility. It can also show that old racist patterns are having an impact, for example in impoverished working-class neighborhoods where the dominant group has left. The effect can be observed with backward wages and employment relationships as well as with higher wages and infant mortality. This also led to a discussion about the extent to which this is due to disguised racism or generally applicable sociological and economic factors, to cultural disadvantage, or even to a lesser I.Q. as Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray argued in their controversy The bell curve. However, research shows that discrimination occurs in the labor market, making it difficult to break the cycle of poverty. They don't take a person who has been limped by chains for years and break them free, put them on the start line of a race and then say, "You can compete with everyone else" and still rightly believe you were completely fair.[14]

Breaking this cycle will apply his positive discrimination. Associated Justice Harry Blackmun advocated color awareness in his 1978 statement University of California regents versus BakkeTo get beyond racism, we must first consider race. There is no other way. And in order to treat some people the same, we have to treat them differently. We cannot - we do not dare - let the equality clause maintain racial supremacy.[fifteen] Positive discrimination, in turn, can lead to opposition from dominant groups who deny the effects of the structural disadvantage and emphasize the lack of personal engagement and intelligence Agency. Since there is indeed an unequal job market, this is rejection laisser-faire-Racism because it leaves this group to its own devices. This racism can be sustained by denying racial privilege by faking color blindness.[8]: 144-149

Historical overview

Antiquity

The idea that external characteristics like skin color and other body characteristics related to cultural and behavioral differences are quite old, but not found in all cultures. For example, there are images of ancient Egypt although differences can be seen between Egyptians, Nubians and Asians, there is no evidence here that skin color was used to infer behavior and ability.

Greek society was clearly not egalitarian based on an accepted supposed natural difference in people. in the Status told Plato about that Gennaion pseudos or noble lie with which the existence of different social classes is justified.[16]: 4-5 The ancient Greeks saw women as inferior to men and barbarians as less than Greeks. Barbarian was admittedly a derogatory name, the distinction more related to linguistic and cultural differences. The ancient Greeks had no words for race, so sayings about this anachronism may appear. However, this does not mean that there was no comparable concept. Adopting a definition of race with superficial physical features such as skin and skin hair color deterministically From biological differences and a definition of racism it follows that there is also a hierarchy of intellectual and moral personality traits that seem at Aristotle but must be distinguishable. Especially in Politika This is reflected, with the barbarian playing a role similar to that of race. Race and racism are found in his climate theory of human differences and his argument about natural slavery. Some were born to submission because, among other things, the Phronesis or practically lacking reason, others for sovereignty. The climate plays a role in this. The cold climate in the north (Europe) would keep people there very busy Thymos or possess spirituality, but Dianoia or lack of intelligence and artistry. While it would make them free in general, it would prevent them from ruling others. In the East (Asia), on the other hand, people are intelligent and artistic, but lack it Thymos and are therefore always dominated. The climate among the Greeks was between these two, so they both left Thymos and Dianoia and were such natural rulers. This implies that Europeans and Asians who would move to Greece would also have these characteristics, which is more likely physical-geographical determinism is biological determinism.[8]: 14
However, views on skin color are inconclusive Leukochros (λευκόχρως) or white skin was seen as a sign of weakness, especially moral. in the Status from Plato men become with one Leukos Skin is praised as lovers, but they lack masculine qualities. For Aristotle, however, the skin color does not seem to correspond to the essence of man, and Plato was ready for it Statesman already established that, contrary to popular belief, the barbarian is not separated Genos was earlier. However, this was not an ethical line of thought, but one of logic: barbarians represent many races.
Drawn by Herodotus Stories positive about what the people of Ethiopia (Africa) and prejudice seem to be largely lacking. This does not apply to Middle Eastern residents and especially the hostile Persians. The Greco-Persian wars trigger a racism in which the Persians are increasingly portrayed as barbaric, supported by this Greek writer like Aeschylus with his Persian. in the Iphigenia in Aulis by Euripides The Greeks are supposed to rule over barbarians and not the other way around, because the former are free and the latter are slaves. An important difference for the Greeks was that they knew democracy while other countries knew one about tyranny.[17]

The Roman Empire was increasingly ruled by non-Romans with different cultural backgrounds. Emperor Septimius Severus was of mixed race, with an Italian-Roman mother and a Libyan-Punic father. Slaves were also of different origins. Ethiopian slaves were sometimes held together for ethnic reasons, but skin color or ethnicity does not appear to have played a role in justifying slavery.[18] There seems to have been some aversion to the size of Northern Europeans Immania Corpora (Giant body) and latos artus (widespread limbs). This is related to the panic that Julius Caesar described his troops Ariovistus and his men with immani corporum size, Body of enormous size. The Atuatuci according to Caesar would have mocked the Romans because of their short stature. The Romans had a cultural disdain for barbaric peoples.[19]: 57-58

Early Christianity

Christianity evolved from a Jewish sect and therefore Jewish ancestry could not be directly viewed as negative. In doing so, Galatians 3:28 suggested this belief made all equal. However, with the rejection of both Jesus and Messiah by the Jews, theological anti-Semitism set in motion that grew slowly from the fourth century onwards. Matthew 27:25 The Jews were increasingly accused of hereditary blood guilt. From the 8th century onwards, clear anti-Judaism became apparent and blood calumny became Scattered. This anti-Semitism could even lead to persecution of the Jews.

Since the peoples were differentiated in the Roman Empire, this was also the case in the Middle Ages. However, there were mainly ethnic differences and, to a lesser extent, racial differences, although ancestry did play a role.[20]: 24

Intolerance wasn't always and everywhere. Stephen I of Hungary referenced the Roman Empire in 1027 in the Frostspiegel for his son Emmerik, arguing that immigrants bring different languages, customs, knowledge and weapons with them, adding to the splendor of the royal court and the strength of the empire. A kingdom with only one habit and only one language would be powerless and vulnerable. However, anti-Semitism took off on the People's Crusade with the massacre of 1096 in the Rhineland and the Worms massacre after the massacre. With that, something Moore started that Pursue society called.[21] The Development of Christian Dogmatics That means, it not only became clearer and clearer what the supposed true faith meant, but it also became clear what did not correspond to it. This could no longer be tolerated and his followers were therefore increasingly persecuted from the 12th century onwards. During the Fourth Lateran Council from 1215, decrees were enacted against the Cathars and the Waldensians and Jews had to wear a distinctive mark, just like the Muslims. The Inquisition of which the Cathars were the first victims, followed by the Jews, lepers and homosexuals. The council was a turning point and alongside this organized persecution there were pogroms. After completion of the Reconquista In 1492, the expulsion decree was issued in Spain and had to refrain from doing so Conversos All Jews left the country. The biological determinism occurs here to a lesser extent, however, the rejected Jewish culture was not associated with a Jewish physiology. Baptism usually seems to have been an option and converted Jews were considered new Christians recognized. The crypto-Jew continued to hold onto the old faith despite being baptized and came to the conclusion that the nature of the Jews would not be good. Sectarian According to Léon Poliakov, hatred turned into racial hatred and so on conspiracy theory of a Jewish rule of the world. For example, Archbishop Silíceo of Toledo knew Emperor Charles V in 1547 to convince you Conversos Exclusion from official positions due to the pro-racial concept limpieza de sangre or purity of blood. This policy was never fully enforced and enforced, but remained a descendant of it until the nineteenth century Conversos Chase.[8]: 15-17 Jews were also forbidden to go to the New World Emigrate and those who tried to avoid this form of marginalization regularly faced death waiting over a autodafe.

Similar treatment for crypto-Muslims took place in 1609-14 with the exile of many Moriscas from Spain, although it is more difficult to distinguish between racism and a struggle for cultural and religious differences than predominantly land-based Moriscas made less of an effort to stop assimilation at all . Here, too, the Morisca were excluded over the limpieza de sangre.[20]: 17-35

As with Aristotle, there was also the idea in Christianity that one people was superior to another and that geography had to do with it. Before Origen of Alexandria Ethnicity was not the determinant of their behavior, but the behavior of an individual at an earlier stage in life was determinant of later ethnicity. There was a way out in a later era Apocatastasis or redemption through Christ. This position therefore did not correspond to modern racism, but it had important elements.[22]

After the Crusades Jews would be increasingly demonized while Africans would be glorified, including Pape Jan who was originally portrayed as an Indian, only to be portrayed as the king of Christian Ethiopia. However, this picture is an all-too-simple generalization based on anecdotal evidence.[23] In reality, the picture will have been more diverse than these superficial stories, and the fear of the stranger certainly played a role for the general population. Ethnocentrism is also not alien to many peoples and their own skin color is the norm. However, it suggests that the grand transatlantic slave trade that followed did not arise out of ingrained racism.

The christening of the Chamberlain by Queen Candace in Ethiopia

In the Middle Ages, there wasn't much contact with Ethiopians from Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa, and attitudes ranged from story-based fear and dislike to heroic and sacred. In Genesis 9: 20-27 Cham, the son of Noah, his drunken father stood naked on his grandson Canaan cursed. This origin myth has been explained as a justification looking back at an existing practice of submitting the Canaanites as slaves to the Israelites. The Bible book itself does not say anything about skin color, since it was about slavery in Israel itself. Ham's curse, however, has been used extensively since slavery by black people because Ham would mean black. Although this is etymologically incorrect, it was believed from the first centuries of the era and thus became an origin myth.[24]

Early Islam

In later versions of the The cave of treasureslike the Arabic Ma'ârah al-Kanûz and the Ethiopian Ba`âta Mazâ prayerIt was explicitly mentioned that these were black peoples who linked the two original myths of slavery and blackness with each other, exegesis formed by the already existing practice of the Arab slave trade. Believers are not enslaved within Islam, so Muslims turned to their unbelieving neighbors. A justification was found for their southern neighbors by making black skin part of Noah's curse as well. This was already in the Talmud in which Sanhedrin 108b Ham was punished with black skin for having sexual intercourse with Noah's Ark. The direct curse thus shifted from Canaan to Ham.

In the Prophets' version of Al-Kisa'i, the penalty for seeing Noah's nakedness has become both slavery and blackness for Ham, and thus has become a twofold curse. Black skin was no longer implicit, but explicitly linked by God to slavery. With the advance of the Islamic Conquests and the accompanying conversion, the slave hunt shifted south and became a derogatory name abeed for slave a synonym for black Africans.[24]

European imperialism

The position of the Catholic Church varied over time, initially ignoring slavery. With the advancement of Christianization, the number of non-Christians decreased and slavery slowly disappeared from Western Europe and was replaced by serfdom, which was practically no different from slavery, but largely disappeared due to the labor shortage after the Black Death. The slave trade was often viewed as immoral, but again, the moral position changed with practice. The Iberian Peninsula already had African slaves and the need for them grew with the Portuguese voyages of discovery colonizing the Atlantic Islands. With the Dum diversas from 1452 and the Romanus pontiff from 1454 Pope Nicholas V permission to enslave non-Christians as missionary activity.

Sixteen combinations of Castas

On their voyages of discovery, the Spaniards found peoples who did not declare to be part of the world religions who denied Christianity. For the Spaniards the question was whether they had a primeval innocence or whether they belonged to the monstrous races.[25] The latter approach was taken in order to expose the local population to the cruel Encomienda-System. It Aristotelian concept of natural slavery would apply to those who to be barbarians by nature, uneducated and inhuman.[26] Ultimately, however, the native population was largely converted and not enslaved, although they were still viewed as inferior. Opportunism also appears to have played a role in accepting mixed relationships. With few Spanish and Portuguese women immigrating to the New World, the pure blood doctrine was rarely applied to mestizos, children with Iberian and indigenous parents. During this time in which the Hispanidad racial segregation was formed to the extent of intermingling with the indigenous population, but this expanded Casta-The system was eventually reduced to white, mestizo and Indian due to the great variation.

Africans, like the Indians, could also be viewed as convertible pagans, but the Spaniards made a distinction between Indians who lived in the Spanish Empire and Africans who lived outside of its jurisdiction. Slaves were allowed during a just war, and the Spaniards simply had no say in the justice of a war outside their own territory. The purchase of the enslaved was considered fair unless there was evidence of injustice. Slavery then gave the opportunity to Christianize these pagans.[27]: 33

Thus Spain became the forerunner of the shift from religious intolerance in the Middle Ages to racism in modern times. This was also the time when an increasing number of people developed nationalities in many European countries. Spanish politics differed from later racism in its strong conviction that it was an advocate of the true faith of the Counter-Reformation at a time also marked by the struggle for the United States. Slavery was defended religiously, but that was more complicated with converted African slaves. In the 16th century, after Islam, both slavery and black skin became part of Ham's curse. It is no accident that this happened at the time the transatlantic slave trade was born. The cruel demeanor of the Conquistadors led to the creation of the black legend, which was used as propaganda against the Spaniards in north-western Europe. However, once the British and Dutch were able to trade slaves, slavery was justified here too. Large format manumission slaves could no longer be baptized. The Dutch and British colonies therefore had relatively little missionary work.

Theologically it was difficult to agree that Jews were freed from hereditary debt through baptism, but that Africans were kept in slavery. It was therefore primarily the widespread belief that the Cham motif was retained, not an official ideology. As long as there was little protest against slavery, such a fully developed ideology was not necessary. On the other hand, popular belief persisted, also through legislation. In British America, Christian slaves, like many British, were initially registered indentured servants to prevent Christians from becoming enslaved. Massachusetts was created in 1641 with the Body of liberties the first state in which slaves were officially kept. In 1705 colony of Virginia im An act about servants and slaves declared that repentance is not a reason to release a slave.This shifted the justification for slavery from paganism itself to pagan origin, and thus implicitly from a religious to a racist argument. Paradoxically, traditionally hierarchical society had to become more egalitarian to complete this transition. This would be the case after the Atlantic Revolutions of Illumination.

The Jews also experienced religious segregation, such as from 1516 in the Jewish quarter in Venice, the namesake of the ghettos where Jews had to live in isolation. In Europe, however, it was not only Jews and Muslims who experienced prejudice and discrimination. On the outside of the continent, the Irish and some Slavic peoples are the victims of it. below Elizabeth I the English knew the Nine Years War in 1603 and thus completed the conquest of Ireland by the Tudor dynasty. This ended Celtic Ireland and started English settlements in Ireland including the hunt of the Gaels from Dublin to Irishtown. The mostly pastoral Catholic population was evicted and replaced by Protestant British peasants. In the twelfth century, after the Norman conquest of Ireland, Gerald of Wales was already showing great contempt for the Irish. They would go into battle naked and unarmed.[28] Thus began the formation of an Irish myth that may have served as a justification for the submission of the island.[29]

Eugenics

Francis Galton, half cousin of Charles Darwin, founded in 1883 Studies on the human faculty and its development that the hindering effect of civilization on natural selection should be canceled out on the one hand with positive eugenics - encouraging the best able to reproduce more - and negative eugenics on the other hand - discouraging or preventing the reproduction of the less able. Haeckel founded in 1899 This miracle of life that killing newborn cripples, as the Spartans did, should not be viewed as murder; and that hundreds of thousands of terminally ill people would be better off, for themselves and for society. Alfred Ploetz went one step further. Varietal hygiene had to be achieved by stimulating strong children and exterminating weak children. In 1905 Ploetz founded the Society for Racial Hygiene to protect the alleged Nordic breed. In 1911 the International Hygiene Exhibition took place, at which, in addition to public health, the general public also became aware of eugenics.

In 1907 the Eugenics Education Society was founded in the United Kingdom by Sybil Gotto and Galton, among others, to promote social hygiene. In Sweden, the Statens institut för rasbiologi was founded in 1922 under the direction of Herman Lundborg. In the United States, Madison Grant was a leading eugenicist who adhered to Northernism The passing of the great race from 1916. 1921 the American Eugenics Society was founded.

separation

Colonial racism had a more direct impact on societies in which large numbers of ex-slave owners and ex-slaves continued to coexist, such as the United States and South Africa. Between the end of the Second Boer War in 1902 and the Union of South Africa in 1910, the foundation stone was laid for the apartheid system with racial segregation. Indigenous reserves were created which excluded the African population from South Africa itself, but which set the rules in the reserves. So the white man had to Chef hood Stay in step. In 1948 these would be formed in the Bantustans, or homeland. Thus, Aboriginal reserves were created in Australia and the United States. Indian reservations.

Less direct, but with great impact, was the introduction of the Black codes in the former Confederate States of America and after rebuilding the Jim Crow laws. Although these violate the prohibition of discrimination in the United States Constitution, these laws were governed by the separated but the same- Doctrine immortalized by the judgment of 1896 in Plessy versus Ferguson. After the civil war, the Southern Democrats slowly managed to regain power. The compromise of 1877 marked the beginning of the decline in liberal resistance to discrimination. This allowed the Redeemers to increase their influence while the North's mind shifted to the right, as demonstrated by the conquest of the Philippines. According to Senator Benjamin Tillman, this led to imperialism:

No Republican leader, not even Governor Roosevelt, will now dare to wave his bloody shirt and preach a crusade against the treatment of the Negro by the South.[30]

The hatred against blacks in the south was so great that the South African politician and advocate of segregation, Maurice Smethurst Evans, withdrew. Evans criticized Jean Finot in 1905 Le préjugé of the race Racial prejudice. According to Finot, the Griekwa is equivalent to whites, but Evans argued:

The Griquas are a degenerate, determined, demoralized people, weak and unstable, lazy and thrifty. They seem constitutionally immoral, far more so than the Europeans or Bantu they live among.[31]

According to Evans, racial prejudice was justified. Nonetheless, he found the white hostility towards blacks in the South American states painful:

It is painful to hold that a people of our own race should be so saturated with hostility to a weaker one who cannot defend itself legally or by force of arms.
We have racial prejudice and have to save in South Africa. It is very difficult for anyone, however experienced and impartial, to correctly assess the comparative depth and intensity of this feeling in the two countries. However, my impression is that we are more tolerant and sympathetic towards the native, as we certainly respect more laws in our relationships with them than the people of the south. What happens there of the subversion of law and justice with its malicious reflex effect on the character should, in my opinion, be a warning for us to keep a close eye on every tendency towards exaggerated prejudices and to have a firm grip.[31]
Radical racism was such that this is regularly lynching African Americans, Mexicans and Chinese. Thousands of spectators could even be there, like here at Will James' lynching in Cairo, Illinois

Joel Williamson called this the era of radical racism.[32] Racial riots provoked by whites were frequent, such as the Hamburg massacre of the red shirts led by Tillman. Other terrorist organizations were the Knights of the White Camelia and the White League, which existed underground for several years and more in the Ku Klux Klan.

There was also frequent lynching because after 1900 less than 1 percent led to convictions:

Usually, the coroner's investigations concluded that “unknown persons” had caused the victim's death. Prosecutors have not brought charges, and when they do, large juries have rarely brought charges. In the exceptional cases where lynchers were actually on trial, they were usually acquitted by the juries. After all, both the jury and the law enforcement officials were part of the local communities and often shared the values ​​and viewpoints of the lynchers, or at least were unwilling to openly oppose them.[33]

In addition to these horrors, African American democratic rights have been increasingly curtailed. In parts of the South where African Americans formed the majority, additional requirements were placed on them to vote, such as educational level. This disqualification from voting after the reconstruction also meant that they were excluded from the duty of the jury, resulting in all-white juries. Many states have also banned interracial marriage.

Read Senator Tillman's speech in the Rocky Mountain News, February 27, 1896
Benjamin Tillman's ideas were rejected in much higher circles, but supported by a large part of the white population in the south

Tillman declared this policy again in 1900 in the US Congress:

We in the South have never recognized the Negro's right to rule white men, and we never will. We never believed that he was equal to the white man, and we will not submit to his gratification of his lust for our wives and daughters without lynching him.[34]

Around 90% of African Americans lived in the South, and their loss of the right to vote created the solid South that Loyal Democratic Southern states choose. The 1912 presidential election in the United States then completed that process, Woodrow Wilson the first Southern President since the Civil War. Under him, racial segregation was also implemented in federal institutions.

At the same time, many white South Americans had a double attitude:

The most virulent nigger haters were often the first to get bitterly angry at any attempt to remove it. His work and submissiveness make their lives easy, and while jealous of any attempt on his part to move forward, they will not let him go.[31]

This was reflected among other things Sunset cities where black people were not allowed to stay after sunset.

For African Americans, it would be even better to get a separate education:

[...] It is a violation for the children of the weaker race to be raised in an environment where they are constantly exposed to negative feelings and opinions. The result must be the development of pathological racial awareness without compensating for the increasing self-esteem of the breed.[35]

In the colonies, with the exception of the Germans, segregation was not carried out that far. The Germans joined the other European colonial rulers late, but with pronounced racism. In German South West Africa between 1904 and 1908 the Namibian genocide took place, where about 80,000 Herero and Nama died in fighting and concentration camps. General Lothar von Trotha aimed at the complete extermination of the Herero, and although Berlin revoked this Annihilation order After many internal struggles, Trotha was almost successful with about 80%. In 1905 mixed marriages were banned and in 1907 both partners lost all rights retrospectively. This led to it in 1912 Mixed-day debate in the German Reichstag.

The First World War largely brought further imperialism to a standstill. The German colonies were thereby Treaty of Versailles with some exceptions mandate areas of the League of Nations. The European countries wanted to take over the colonies, but US President Wilson attached great importance to self-determination of these countries. Segregation in the colonies would eventually be replaced by segregation in Germany itself. The humiliating defeat was accompanied by the November Revolution with which the Weimar Republic came about. Domestic opposition to the German reparations, the hyperinflation and the Franco-Belgian occupation of the Ruhr area made the republic politically unstable from the start. On the one hand there were many free corps who left that Reichswehr. On the other hand, there were many council republics under the influence of the young revolutionary Soviet Union. In 1920 the Kapp Putsch was committed by Free Corps, which in turn led to the retirement. The National Socialist German Workers' Party (NSDAP) was founded in this climate. Initially this was just one of many right-wing and racist parties, but with Adolf Hitler it became more popular. After that failed Beer cellar coup from 1923 Hitler ended up in prison, where he my fight wrote. In this strongly anti-Semitic work, he accused the Jews of having lost the war and the economic crisis. With them, internationalism, they too would be responsible for both the capitalist and the communist threat to the German nationalist Folk spirit. The Jews would use that Big lie. The French tolerated, among other things Troops colonialists in during the Allied occupation of the Rhineland, which the Germans regarded as humiliating and Betrayal of the white race was experienced. It resulted in a smear campaign known as the Black shame accusing the Aricans of rape and other atrocities. The children from relationships between these soldiers and German women were, like Rhineland Bastards, discriminated against and even sterilized under the Nazis.

In the United States, the war led to to press one of the Jim Crow laws in the south pull originated in the north. Due to the reduced migration from Europe and the increased demand due to the war, the labor shortage in the industrial cities grew with the large African-American migration result. A new awareness grew in the African American population when black soldiers returned from Europe and were not thanked for it, but received a hateful welcome. The Harlem Renaissance was accompanied by the stylish New negrowhile Marcus Garvey started the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) and the Back to Africa movement. Especially in the north it became increasingly clear that the happy dark a black face-Cartoon. At the same time, Garveyism developed a more militant stance that advocated segregation of its own and thus even found a connection to the Ku Klux Klan, which resulted in the expulsion of activists such as NETZ. Du Bois who were looking for more integration. When they arrived in the north, these African Americans regained the right to vote and mainly joined the Democratic Party there. The Southern Democrats, however, long insisted on their policy of white supremacy.

Sign with Sojourner Truth Homes Detroit who protested the arrival of black residents in 1942. Many would later live here for Motown singing groups

In the north, however, migration did not go smoothly either. The arrival of large numbers of African Americans in the northern and western cities sparked a new segregation, this time an economic one. Much of the white city dwellers moved to the suburbs and suburbs that white flight. In addition, the large supply of cheap labor was seen as a threat by the white working class, mainly migrants from disadvantaged areas in Europe. The disappearance of a large part of the black population was a dilemma for the south. On the one hand, these were treated with great hostility and the migration was initially received positively. However, as the numbers increased, a problem arose for an economy based on these cheap labor. Initiatives were then developed to stop the migration. When salary increases and improvements in conditions were not helpful, attempts were made to prevent African Americans from being able to travel. Senator Narciso Gender Gonzales of South Carolina earlier summed up the dilemma as:

Politically there are far too many Negroes in South Carolina, but from an industrial point of view there is room for much more.[36]

It was becoming increasingly clear in science that there were more cultural than biological differences. Where previously with the comparison method it had been drawn the conclusion that primitive societies developed into complex societies like Europe, from which this theory was undercut social development among others by Franz Boas. The theory was seen as ethnocentric and prompted by the archaic belief in progress. As a liberal with a Jewish background, Boaz fought against racism and developed it into historical particularism, the theory that every culture is unique and has its own history, shaped by specific historical circumstances and environmental factors. In a speech invited by Du Bois in 1906, Boas pointed out that on the long history of mankind, the current state of affairs is only a snapshot and Africans knew their own merits and size:

The achievements of races are not just what they have accomplished in the short span of two thousand years when, with rapidly increasing numbers, the total amount of mental work accumulated faster and faster. In this regard, the European, the Chinese, the East Indian have far surpassed other races. But back in those days lies the time when humanity struggled with the elements, when every little advance that now seems insignificant to us was an achievement of the highest order, as great as, if not greater, the discovery of steam power or electricity . It may well be that these early inventions were barely made aware, and certainly not on purpose, but each and every one of them represents the advancement of a giant in the development of human culture. The Negro race contributed its liberal part to these early advances.While much of the history of early invention is shrouded in obscurity, it seems likely that at a time when Europeans were still content with rude stone tools, the African invented or adopted the art of smelting iron.[37]

That this snapshot is arbitrary as an argument to designate a group of people as inferior can be seen from the perspective of the Old Babylonian period.We look at the ancestors of the Romans, who were then considered barbarians:

The arguments for inferiority drawn from the history of civilization are also weak. By the time the early Kingdom of Babylonia was flourishing, the same derogatory remarks may have been made about the Negro - about the ancestors of the ancient Romans. They were then a barbaric horde that had never contributed to the advancement of this civilization confined to parts of Asia, and yet they were destined to develop a culture that has become the foundation and an integral part of our own.