Which educational philosophies work and which don't

The role of responsibility in Kant's educational philosophy

Table of Contents

A. Education for responsibility as an educational goal of today

B. What role does responsibility play in Kant's educational philosophy?
1. Pedagogical and historical framework
1.1 The “pedagogical century” - the pedagogical framework
1.2 The Enlightenment according to Kant - the historical framework
2. Concept of education and Kant's educational goal - one possible field of the concept of responsibility
2.1 The need for education
2.2 Moral education as an educational goal and a possible field of responsibility
3. The emergence of morality and the prerequisites for morality
3.1 The end in itself
3.2 purposes
3.3 The realm of purposes
3.4 The principle of autonomy
3.5 Freedom as a prerequisite for moral action
3.6 The ought in the categorical imperative
4. (False) conclusions
4.1 The naturalistic fallacy in Kant
4.2 Kant, the ethicist of convictions
5. Responsibility in Kant's theory of education
5.1 Responsibility towards the maxim
5.2 Responsibility for oneself
5.3 Responsibility towards other people
5.4 Responsibility to Reason

C. Criticism of the role of responsibility in Kant's educational philosophy

D. Bibliography

A. Education for responsibility as an educational goal of the present

“The moral subject takes responsibility and acts responsibly when it does in front the claim of reason based on free self-commitment For the world 'stands up' in benevolent care, 'stands up' for it and 'stands up' for its actions ”(Weber 1999, 212 f.).

That quote about responsibility from 1999 is still valid today. Especially in the present, responsibility and care for the (environment) world play a major role. In the course of postmodernism, a pluralism and relativism of values, principles and ideas about the meaning and content of life emerged (cf. Weber 2003, 206). This brought with it a great deal of uncertainty and opacity. The question of morally “correct” action became important (cf. ibid.). Today people find themselves in a society of multiple possibilities: individualization, de-traditionalization and de-standardization are determining factors in life. There is still great uncertainty about what is morally correct. This uncertainty is closely related to the freedom that humans have today - both in thinking and in action. Freedom is the basis of an autonomous person. And should also be promoted, but “freedom without the corresponding corrective of responsibility [...] ends in inhumanity. It remains an indispensable task of education to counteract inhumanity ”(Weber 2003, 207). Precisely the “corrective of responsibility”, as Erich Weber calls it, is needed nowadays in order to be able to act morally and therefore responsibly in a pluralistic and uncertain world. It is not easy to act responsibly, but it becomes all the more important due to the social circumstances: “The category of (self) responsibility is the main goal of personal moral education” (Mertens 1995, 426 ff., Quoted in Weber 1999, 288 ). In pedagogy, a distinction is made between “social responsibility” and “personal responsibility” (Geißler 1996, 46 ff. Quoted in Weber 1999): While with social responsibility the legal relationships in the state determine the role of responsibility, people have to take responsibility for themselves in front of his own person responsible (cf. ibid). In order to be able to become socially responsible, people must first learn to take responsibility for themselves. In this context, Geißler defines the person as follows: “From a moral point of view, the person is a free, rational and self-responsible (autonomous) moral subject who, as an individual, conscience-centered entity, is responsible for its own judgmental statements and moral decisions, and not these may deport to others ”(Weber 1999, 181 f.). Here it becomes clear that in order to be able to function in society and to come of age (and thus to be morally capable of acting), above all, people need responsibility.

Education for personal responsibility is therefore an important goal of today's education.

The determination of man as a person has various origins. An important starting point goes back to the Age of Enlightenment, to Immanuel Kant. He describes the human being as a rational being who has the possibility and also the duty to act morally (cf. Kant 1925, 125). The categorical imperative is considered to be “universal legislation”: “Act only according to the maxim through which you can at the same time want it to become a general law” (Kant 1925, 122). Weber adds: “Ultimately he [, the human being] is as reasonable, free and responsible Being an end in itself, a person with dignity that has to be respected (Weber 1999, 181).

Whether or not people were also educated to take on responsibility with Kant is to be discussed. Responsibility is a central goal in the educational philosophy of today. What role it played in Kant's educational philosophy and how exactly responsibility is related to moralization, as one of Kant's most important educational goals, will be examined below.

What follows is a brief overview of the “pedagogical century” and the Enlightenment. After the temporal and socio-historical circumstances have been explained, the educational theory of Kant is discussed, right up to the clarification of the role of responsibility.

B. What role does responsibility play in Kant's educational philosophy?

1. Pedagogical and historical framework

1.1 The “pedagogical century” - the pedagogical framework

Even at that time, the 18th century was referred to as the “pedagogical century” (Koller 2008, 27). Enlighteners and educators such as Immanuel Kant, Jean-Jacques Rousseau and John Locke contributed significantly to the naming through new educational theories and models.

The “discovery of childhood” by the French historian Philippe Ariès was also decisive: although the view of childhood had changed since the 16th century, it was not recognized as a separate developmental phase until the 19th century. Children were no longer considered to be “small adults”, but viewed as a separate age group with their own needs. (ibid., 28 f). The phase of childhood called for special treatment. That made education all the more important. Education issues came to the fore. The focus was not only placed more on the child in the family, but also in the government: schools should be established as places for bringing up children and imparting “systematic skills” (ibid., 29). Although compulsory schooling was only introduced in Prussia in the 19th century, the pioneering discourses took place in the 18th century. Furthermore, the first professorship for pedagogy was established in Halle in 1779, which was previously a sub-discipline of philosophy. (ibid.).

1.2 The Enlightenment according to Kant - the historical framework

Education issues and discourses became particularly important in the Enlightenment. In the second half of the 18th century in Germany, when the Enlightenment reached its peak, the relationship to society and the relationship to God changed. The “transcendental superstructure”, which was the foundation and legitimation of the authorities for centuries, was called into question. “Sapere aude! Have the courage to use your own understanding! So it is the motto of the Enlightenment ”(Kant 1967, 55). Furthermore, Kant's definition of clarification reads:

“Enlightenment is the outcome of a person from his or her self-inflicted immaturity. Immaturity is the inability to use one's mind without guidance from another. This immaturity is self-inflicted if the cause of it is not a lack of understanding but a lack of resolution and the courage to use someone else without his guidance ”(Kant 1967, 55).

Man consequently has a mind that he can use to think and act independently. Kant describes the fact that he does not use it and prefers to be guided by others (at that time mostly the nobility or clergy) as “underage” (ibid.). People are mostly minors because of “laziness and cowardice”: “It's so easy to be minors”. (ibid.). A person of age, and thus also independent and courageous, is someone who "makes public use of his reason in all respects" (ibid). This also means that the individual exposes himself to the danger of being criticized or punished, or of making wrong decisions. To be absent or to “fall”, as Kant (ibid.) Puts it, is part of the process of using one's own understanding. Kant even describes it as the "abuse of his natural gifts" (ibid., 56) that people blindly and unreflectively follow the rules and guidelines of others. The path from underage to maturity is not an easy one, since people are not used to "such free [spiritual] movement" (ibid.). Nevertheless, freedom is the unconditional basis of reasonable thought and action. As a living being endowed with reason, humans need them in order to achieve the personal and social goal of human perfection, which is rooted in education.

2. Concept of education and Kant's educational goal - one possible field of the concept of responsibility

2.1 The need for education

“Man is the only creature that needs to be educated” (Kant 1997, 3) is the first sentence of Immanuel Kant's book “On Education”. In contrast to animals, instinct is not enough for man. He is gifted with reason and thus has the opportunity and also the duty to shape his life. In contrast to instinct, which is already given, people have to understand the interrelationships in life and learn skills. To do this, he needs help. Education provides this help. (ibid., 3 f). It is what makes man human: “Man can only become human through education. He is nothing but what education makes of him ”(Kant 1925, 346). Kant speaks of the "natural disposition [n]" (Kant 1997.4) that humans have. Man can only make this his own through upbringing. “Because human beings do not develop natural abilities by themselves, all education is an art. - Nature has put no instinct in him for this ”(Kant 1997, 15).

2.2 Moral education as an educational goal and a possible field of responsibility

An important educational goal with Kant is the education of the moral personality. This implies that sensuality and instinctuality should be subjected to reason. (see Schuffenhauer 1984, 23). Reason should be used in freedom and autonomy in order to be able to act morally well. To be able to think and act morally is therefore a prerequisite for becoming a moral personality. Moral education is based “not on discipline, but on maxims. [...] One must see that the pupil acts well from his own maxims, not from habit, that he not only does what is good, but does it because it is good. For the whole moral value of actions consists in the maxim of the good ”(Kant 1997, 73). The education towards moralization follows step by step. Discipline, cultivation and civilization can be taught or "trained" to the pupil. But not moralization: “The maxims must arise from the person himself” (Kant 1997, 83). That is the challenge of upbringing: To bring the pupil to the point where he makes use of reason of his own free will and autonomously for one quality Maxime decides. In order to test his actions for morality, Kant applies the categorical imperative: “Act only according to the maxim by which you can at the same time want it to become a general law” (Kant 1925, 122).

Morality and morality are one of the most important goals in Kant's educational theory. In order to determine the concept of responsibility in Kant, these two goals must be examined, since responsibility is most likely to be found there. In the following it will be explored how morality and morality come about and where the concept of responsibility occurs.

3. The emergence of morality and the prerequisites for morality

The categorical imperative can be seen as an "aid" for moral action. He demands that the maxim be one which one can at the same time want it to become general law. (cf. Kant 1925, 122). In order to understand why a person should always choose the good maxim, in Kant's “Metaphysics of Morals” it becomes Principle of morality explained in several steps. We start with the formula for its own sake.

3.1 The end in itself

The will of man is self-determined by a purpose, namely that End in itself: "Reasonable nature exists as an end in itself" (Kant 1925, 124). Everyone Human beings have a reasonable nature (= reason), since reason is a prerequisite and characteristic of a person. Ergo the principle applies to everyone People and therefore be objective. It can serve as a "general practical law" (ibid.) And all "laws of the will (...) can be derived from it" (ibid.). Kant develops the practical imperative from this law: "Act in such a way that you use humanity, both in your person and in the person of the other, at all times as an end, never just as a means."

3.2 purposes

The end in itself is an absolute end (applies to everyone) and not a relative end (does not apply to everyone). A relative purpose, for example, satisfies a desire that is linked to subjective needs and therefore does not apply equally to all.

What also emerges from the distinction between absolute and relative purpose is the distinction between price and intrinsic value or dignity:

[...]

End of the excerpt from 14 pages