Is scandium a solid liquid or a gas

Structure of substances - particle model


In solids, the atoms are close together. Each of these atoms is held in place by the surrounding other atoms.
The atoms, however, are not at rest, but carry out vibrations (fidgeting movements) around their place. They cannot leave their place.


In liquids, the atoms are also very close together. But you can easily swap places with each other. Even without outside influence, they are constantly moving around each other. However, they cannot leave the liquid without further ado. Because of the ease with which the atoms can be moved, liquids can be poured, they take on any shape, solid bodies evade when immersed and tend to form a horizontal surface.


In gases, the atoms move at great speed completely independently of one another. They therefore take up every available space. If they hit neighboring atoms, they are thrown in a different direction like billiard balls. This property allows gases to evaporate quickly in free space.

Brownian motion

The constant movement in solids, liquids and gases is called Brownian movement.
The English botanist R. Brown (1773-1858) observed the phenomenon that small floating particles in liquids and gases are in constant zigzag motion.
This movement is due to the fact that the atoms or molecules, liquids and gases, themselves carry out irregular movements and collide with other particles from all sides.
If the temperature of the liquids or gases is increased, the speed of the atoms and molecules increases.

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