When does PMS occur

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

The term "Premenstrual Syndrome" (PMS) refers to one Symptom complex of physical and emotional complaints. It occurs regularly a few days before menstruation and disappears when the menstrual period starts.

Typical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome include irritability, breast tenderness and fatigue. Come as causes hormonal fluctuations during the female cycle as well certain diet and lifestyle habits in question.

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Definition: Premenstrual Syndrome

Premenstrual syndrome - PMS for short - is the term used to describe characteristic symptoms that occur regularly 4 to 14 days before the menstrual period start. As your period starts, symptoms typically subside and go away.

To the physical symptoms of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) include among others

  • Retention of water in the body
  • Breast tenderness
  • Abdominal, head and back pain
  • fatigue
  • Exhaustion

On psychological-emotional level the PMS expresses itself through, among other things

  • Mood swings
  • irritability
  • depressive moods
  • Difficulty concentrating
  • sleep disorders
  • Listlessness
  • anxiety

The PMS can be from woman to woman differently pronounced be. While some women have no or hardly any symptoms before the onset of menstrual bleeding, others are considerably restricted in their quality of life as a result.

In around 5 percent of women affected, PMS has such a strong impact on their everyday lives that it becomes recurring Conflicts in private and professional life comes. This particularly severe form of PMS is considered a mental illness in its own right and is known as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDS).

Frequency of PMS

The syndrome occurs in varying degrees and severity around 75 percent of all women of childbearing age on. Women over 35 in particular often suffer from premenstrual syndrome and the symptoms associated with it. Overweight women are more often affected than normal weight women. Around 5 percent of the women affected are severely restricted in their everyday life as a result of the disorder.

Causes of PMS

What exactly causes the premenstrual syndrome is still not fully understood. Probably can several reasons to be responsible.

The Hormonal fluctuations during the female cyclethat lead to a hormonal imbalance between estrogen and progesterone may be triggers. For example, after ovulation in the middle of the cycle, progesterone levels rise while estrogen levels fall. These cyclical changes in hormone levels lead to water retention in the body and, it has been suggested, also influence the production and action of neurotransmitters in the brain.

Other theories suggest that the PMS is more of a psychiatric illness is from the group of depression. That is why they are also among the causes of the characteristic PMS symptoms

  • family history of mental illness
  • psychosocial conflicts like
    • stress
    • relationship problems
    • occupational overload

Other possible factors are a Lack of exercise and physical fitness as well as a wrong diet with too much

  • sugar
  • alcohol
  • caffeine
  • nicotine

Symptoms of PMS

Premenstrual syndrome can occur in the days leading up to your menstrual period Variety of different symptoms trigger that vary from woman to woman and also from time to time. A distinction between physical and psychological symptoms is possible. With the onset of the menstrual period, these symptoms usually subside and disappear completely on the first or second day of your period.

Physical symptoms

The most common physical symptom of PMS is a tendency to water retention (edema) in the tissues, for example in the ankles and lids, which lead to weight gain.

Other physical ailments are

  • tense and painfully pulling breasts
  • Abdominal pain and abdominal cramps
  • Headache and back pain
  • Circulatory problems
  • Changes in appetite such as cravings or loss of appetite
  • Bloating
  • Constipation and gas
  • Fatigue and exhaustion
  • Hot flashes and sweats
  • Dizzy spells

Mental symptoms

The mental symptoms of premenstrual syndrome are expressed, among other things, in

  • Mood swings between sadness and euphoria
  • irritability
  • Tantrums
  • depressive moods
  • Anxiety
  • Sleep and concentration disorders
  • Listlessness or hyperactivity

Diagnosis of PMS

The diagnosis is primarily based on the typical PMS symptoms that only occur in the days before the menstrual period.

For this purpose, the doctor asks the woman concerned as part of a Anamnesis interview about their medical history and individual complaints. On the basis of a physical examination, the doctor can then rule out other causes of the symptoms, such as an underactive thyroid or the onset of menopause. As part of a laboratory test, the hormone level is also examined for a possible imbalance.

Treatment of PMS

Treatment for premenstrual syndrome is directional according to the type and severity of the present complaints.

In mild cases, no special therapy is usually necessary. Here it is enough if the woman is up adequate sleep and exercise as well as a balanced nutrition respect. Also relaxing measures how

  • hot baths,
  • Walks or
  • Cycling in the air,
  • Massages and
  • Relaxation exercises

can be sufficient to alleviate the symptoms characteristic of premenstrual syndrome.

In severe cases special therapy with medication may be necessary.


For example, for drug therapy herbal supplements out

  • Chaste tree
  • Johannis herbs
  • Wolfstrapp
  • Chaste mud extract
  • Dietary supplements such as calcium, vitamin B and magnesium supplements

Pain can be symptomatic, among other things Ibuprofen be treated. Help against water retention leaching drugs (so-called diuretics) such as spironolactone.

The psychological complaints, especially depressive moods and strong mood swings, can be relieved with mood-enhancing drugs such as Antidepressants to treat. In addition, a hormonal therapy with ovulation inhibitors (birth control pills) or hormone preparations that restore the hormonal balance may be useful.


It is not possible to make a precise statement about the prognosis, as the symptoms vary in severity and severity from woman to woman and from time to time and are perceived subjectively by every woman.

Not every premenstrual syndrome needs treatment. However, an untreated premenstrual syndrome can cause severe symptoms that severely limit the woman concerned in her private and professional life. Therefore, medical treatment for severe forms of premenstrual syndrome is always useful.

With the onset of the menstrual period, the symptoms usually subside on their own until they disappear again after 1 to 2 days.