What words express disgust in Hungarian?
Lexical errors in the lemma inventory of the Hungarian German dictionary by Előd Halász and in the key to the translation of the entrance examination
1 Lexical errors in the lemma inventory of the Hungarian German dictionary by Előd Halász and in the key to the translation of the entrance examination Edit Gyáfrás (Szeged) At the Hungarian universities, you have to take an entrance examination for the subject of German studies, which also contains a written part. The written entrance examination consists, among other things, of a translation from Hungarian into German, in which both a monolingual and a bilingual dictionary can be used. The monolingual dictionary is mostly DUW (Duden Universal Dictionary) and WA (True German Dictionary), while the bilingual Hungarian-German dictionary is the rough dictionary by Előd Halász. In 1992 116 schillers passed the entrance examination for the three-year course in German as a foreign language at the József-Attila-Universitát. A maximum of 40 points could be given for the translation from Hungarian into German. In the examined year 1992, however, a maximum of 31 points were achieved in practice. Our aim was to investigate the problems of dictionary use, so only the relatively good translations with predominantly lexical errors were selected. 39 papers were examined in which between 17 and 31 points were achieved. Points 17 over 20 points 19 over 30 points 3 There were two different translation texts, as the written entrance exams were written on two consecutive days. The first text was translated on June 23, 1992, the second on June 24th. In the first text we examined 2 nouns, in the second 5 syntagms, including 4 verb groups and a deverbative adjective form. We selected these 7 text passages because the German translation solutions produced showed very gross deviations.
2 92 EDIT GYÁFRÁS In the analysis we have the ninth unaltered edition of the great Hungarian German dictionary by Előd Halász, published in 1990, the WA (published in Munich, 1988) and the DUW (published in Zurich / Mannheim / Vienna, 1989) used. We have also used the solutions given in the key for comparison. Of the 39 translations selected for the entrance examination, 21 relate to the first text (June 23, 1992). From this text we examined 2 nouns. I. HUNGARIAN TEXT (JUNE 23, 1992) Nem kevésbé fontos kérdés, hogy mikor jőn el a világvége. Első ízben az ezredik esztendő (1) fenyegette a világot a pusztulás rémképével, de távolról sem utoljára. (Egy amerikai próféta) 1908 októberére jósolta a világvégét. (2) Hívei fehérbe Öltöztek, kivonultak a mezőre, s ott zsoltárokat énekelve várták a szörnyű percet. I. GERMAN TEXT (SOLUTION KEY) No less important is the question of when the end of the world will come. Ms first (1) the year 1000 threatened the world with the horror of doom, but by no means the last. (An American prophet) predicted the end of the world for October 1908. (2) His followers dressed in white, marched into the field and waited there singing psalms for the terrible minute. The first noun underlined in the source text was translated into 15 fills with 'Schreckbild'. That is also in the key to the solution. Further solutions were 'delusion', 'fear picture', 'horror' in 2 cases each. Of them there is no mention of 'horror' in the Hungarian German dictionary, so the Schillers did not make this mistake because of the dictionary. The two other solutions, 'fear picture' and 'delusion', are given. We looked up these meanings in the DUW and WA. DUW (delusion): pathological obsessive-compulsive conception, idea that cannot be justified in the real environment. "WA (Wahnbild): deceptive, image of the phantasy created in the delusion It follows that the meaning 'delusion' refers to the language of psychology. In the Hungarian-German dictionary there is no indication or other definition of the meaning, which is why the Schillers were able to denote Do not make the difference between 'Schreckbild' and 'Delusion'. The meaning 'Angstbild' is not specified in either the DUW or in the WA. By the way: instead of the translation given in the answer key, 'Schreckbild' wire 'Schre-
3 LEXICAL ERRORS IN THE LEMMA STOCK kensbild 'has been more correct and more common. It is given as the third main meaning in the Hungarian German dictionary. The second underlined noun in the source text was translated as 'Anhinger' in 12 fillets. 6 students used the word 'believers' in the translation, in 2 cases it was translated as 'faithful', in one case it was translated as 'followers'. In the Hungarian German dictionary all meanings listed here are given as 'faithful' 'followers' 'believers'. In addition to the main meaning 'trailer', the second item listed is 'faithful', whose difference to 'trailer' is marked, according to the meaning given in the DUW. DUW (Faithful): with others who belong to somebody's friend (girlfriend) "In the WA, 'Faithful' is not specified. Under 'Follower' in the DUW: Member of a Germanic allegiance" to somebody who is oath of allegiance to a Filrst or leader Allegiance is obligated. "As far as 'creditors' are concerned, the DUW says the following: anyone who is entitled by a debt to make financial claims against another who is entitled to claim against a debtor." There are two lemmas in WA: Believer, believer, believer in a doctrine of the faith, who -n "someone who has a justified debt of sb." In the given context, 'Anhinger' was the correct solution, as it is in the key. Eighteen of the translations we have selected concern the second text (June 24, 1992). In this text we examined 4 verb groups and one deverbative adjective form.
4 94 EDIT GYÁFRÁS H. HUNGARIAN TEXT (24 JUNE 1992) Nagy-Britanniában évekig munkanélküli-segélyt kapott Drakula gróf, James Bond, sőt Miss Muppet is, amíg Southwark város bírósága a minap úgy nem a pénz. Igazából persze nem a film- és mesefigurák (2) vették fel a munkanélküli -segélyt, hanem tizenkét csaló, akiknek mellesleg még állásuk is volt. Kezdetben hétköznapi álneveken vetették fel magukat a munkanélküliek listájára, de amikor látták, hogy működik a dolog, (3) humorérzékük elragadta őket. Ettől kezdve híres emberek nevét kezdték használni, Erzsébet királynőét, John Lennonét és Robe rt Mugabe zimbabwei elnökét, majd merész húzással (4) áttértek a költött figurákra. A bíróság nem nevetett az őtleten. Különösen szomorúnak találta azt a tényt, hogy a banda négy teljes éven át lopta meg a munkanélkülisegély-pénztárt anélkül, hogy a (5) gépiesen pecsételő bürokraták gyanút fogtak volnaút. II. GERMAN TEXT (SOLUTION KEY) In Great Britain, Count Drakula, James Bond, and even Miss Muppet received unemployment benefits for many years until the Southwark City Court recently ruled (6) that the money was not due to them. In reality (7) it was not the film and fairy tale characters who took up the unemployment benefit, but rather twelve defrauders who, by the way, also had a job. At first they love to register themselves on the unemployment list under common aliases, but when they saw that the thing was working, (8) they were carried away by their sense of humor. From then on they began to use the names of famous people, that of Queen Elizabeth, John Lennon and the President of Zimbabwe Robert Mugabe; (9) then they switched (with a bold move) to invented figures. The court didn't laugh at the idea. Particularly sad was the fact that the gang had stolen from the unemployment fund for four full years without suspecting the mechanically stamping bureaucrats. The first group of verbs underlined in the source text was translated into 7 cases with 'fees', which corresponds to the translation given in the solution key. In another 7 cases 'zukommen' was used. The verb group was translated with paraphrases in 4 other cases: no more money no more money no more money is given to them In the Hungarian German dictionary sired is given as the main meanings 'geb'hren' and 'zukommen'. In the DUW, for 'fees' it says: (go): as a right to be granted; to be entitled: to him, his performance deserves recognition "In the WA: (according to law or merit) to be due, to be entitled; it is not my place to make him rules" The key also states 'fees'.
5 LEXICAL ERRORS IN THE LEMMA STATUS According to DUW, 'to come' means: fees for sb. belong to so much: you are not entitled to a judgment; the only thing that is due to him is ... "to give money to sb." The choice according to the context should be 'entitled'. 'To be entitled' in the DUW: to be something to whichjmd. has a (justifiable) claim to what sb. has to get: the larger part is entitled to him "'to be granted' in the WA: it is my right, it is due to me, is my right, my share" 'to be granted' is in Hungarian German Dictionary only mentioned in one example sentence, but not as a main meaning. The second passage in the text was translated into 7 fillets with 'record'. The same thing is in the key to the solution. In another 10 cases the Schillers wrote 'to raise' and in one case 'to relate' was used. The main meanings of these in the Hungarian-German dictionary are 'to pick up' and 'to raise'. 'Obtaining' is only mentioned in one example sentence. According to DUW, 'to borrow' is: to borrow (money) from somebody: money, a loan, a loan, a mortgage to borrow "to borrow (money, credit)" In the key, 'to borrow' is given as a translation. In the DUW it says 'to collect': demand, demand, collect as payment: collect taxes, contributions, fees; at this, for this event, an entrance fee of 3 Marks will be charged "request, allow payment (entrance fee, fees, taxes, customs)" "levy" is listed as the main meaning in the Hungarian German dictionary.
6 96 EDIT GYÁFRÁS According to DUW, 'to get' means: regularly received: a newspaper through the post office; receive a good salary (get paid regularly) "receive, get (than receive a salary on a regular basis)" Instead of the translation given in the answer key, 'record' wire 'draw' was more correct. It is only mentioned in one example sentence in the Hungarian German dictionary, but not as the main meaning. The most difficult sentence, because it was not perfectly formulated in the Hungarian original, was: they were carried away by their sense of humor "Among the translations there was only one solution with 'carry along'. Other solutions were: they were carried away by their sense of humor 7 they were carried away by their sense of humor 3 their sense of humor enchanted them 5 they were sensed by their sense of humor 3 'enticing', 'driving away' and 'delighting' are given as the main meanings in the Hungarian German dictionary, while 'grasp' and In the Hungarian German dictionary, the form is 'rub down' with the mark 'ált.' According to DUW, 'rub down' is: to inspire, to bewitch (and thereby trigger a corresponding emotion): to ripen the audience to storms of applause; (...) 3. overpower and tempt you to do something : to let oneself be ripe for sth. "delight, inspire; his speech rif3 all listeners; (...) let yourself mature: let yourself be overwhelmed by your (negative) feelings "
7 LEXICAL ERRORS IN THE LEMMA STATE The word 'carry on' is thawing DUW: grasp with a violent movement and forcibly take away from a place, take with it, ripen away: the crowd, the current rijj me (with itself) away; (...) allow oneself to ripen (overwhelm) one's feelings "In the WA is' carry on ': ripen away, take away violently, pull away; (...) (fig.) ripen along, get into passionate sympathy" The difference between' rub down 'and' drive away 'are marked in the Hungarian German dictionary. 'carry on' is to be used in the sense of 'fizikai erő'. You can see that the two solutions (a) ... carried away and (b) ... carried away are just as good as carried away ". The three verbs are largely synonymous. The best translation of the Hungarian sentence would be: '..., love their sense of humor with- (towards), (away-) rub each other "". In the DUW it says 'entz erfüllencken': (suddenly) fill with joyful pleasure, excite sb. Pleasure, inspire sb.: The music delighted him; "In WA is 'entzűcken': make sb. Hehe joy, inspire him; the sight, the book, her singing enchants me "In the Hungarian-German dictionary an indication is given as a precision of meaning next to 'entz .cken'. According to DUW, 'to grasp' is: (by a feeling, a movement of the soul, etc.) (suddenly) to grasp and leave for a while in a certain state; grab, overcome: disgust, fear, joy seized him. "Horror, fear, doubt seized him" The fourth passage was translated in 17 cases with 'to pass' and in one case with 'to turn'. In the Hungarian German dictionary 'űbergiegen' is given as the main meaning. The other meanings, 'to turn' and 'to move around', are listed with example sentences.
8 98 EDIT GYÁFRÁS In the DUW it says 'to go over': stop with something and start something else; to transfer "In WA is 'to go over': to move on to something from now on doing something else" The next word 'to turn' is in the DUW: to turn to something, to someone, to do something: to turn one's back on someone; his attentiveness o. d. to focus on sth.; to deal with sth. "According to WA, 'to turn': to turn to someone, to turn around; to show interest in a thing, to begin with" 'To adapt' is in DUW: to adjust to changed circumstances, to adapt to changed relationships: to adapt one's life (to the modern Time) to change "In WA is 'to change': take a different posture, adapt to the new circumstances, to a new situation" In addition to the translation given in the solution key, 'change', 'go over', which is correct in the Hungarian-German dictionary is listed as the main meaning and was chosen in 17 cases in the translation. The fifth passage in the text was translated correctly as 'stamp' in only one single case; in 17 cases the students used 'seals'. According to DUW, 'stamping' is: something with a stamp in order to mark the thing in question in a certain way: to declare it (in) valid o. Ti. : Stamp letters, forms; "Put a stamp on something (identity card, certificate, letter)" In the DUW is 'seal': with a seal: a letter, a certificate (less often) with a seal, authenticate. "decide or confirm with a seal (letter); seal a letter, a certificate"
9 LEXICAL ERRORS IN THE LEMMA STATUS The correct translation is given in the solution key, 'stamping', but the form 'stamping' is missing in the Hungarian-German dictionary. We have set ourselves the goal of checking for their origin certain typical, lexical errors in the translations into German during the 1992 entrance examination. The sources of error were: The meaning is missing in the Hungarian German dictionary (e.g. stamp). The meaning is given in the Hungarian German dictionary, but with several equivalents without context; therefore the Schillers could not choose the meaning appropriate to the context (e.g. horror picture). The meaning is not given as an equivalent, but is only given in the example sentences (e.g. entitled, included, related). We were also able to determine that the key, which was sent to the university as a proof sheet, did not always specify the optimal solution (e.g. 'horror picture' instead of 'horror picture', 'fees' instead of 'due', 'record' instead of 'obtain' ).
10 100 EDIT GYÁFRÁS Literature Dictionaries Duden German universal dictionary. Edited by the Scientific Council and the staff of the Duden editorial team under the direction of Günther Dosdrowski. 2nd edition Mannheim 1989 Halász Előd: Magyar német szótár (I II.) Akadémiai Kiadó, Bp Halász Előd: Német magyar szótár (I II.) Akadémiai Kiadó, Bp Wahrig, G .: German dictionary. Edited in collaboration with numerous scientists and other experts. With a lexicon of language teaching. Mosaik Verlag, Munich 1986 Secondary literature Hausmann, F. J. Werner, R. O .: Specific components and structures of bilingual dictionaries An overview. In: An International Handbook on Lexicography. Third volume, ed.by Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. Berlin / New York: de Grurter, Karl, I .: Grammatical and lexical categorization in the bilingual dictionary. In: EM international handbook on lexicography, third volume, ed. by Franz Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter, Lőtzsch, R .: The compound words in the bilingual dictionary. In: An international handbook on lexicography, third volume, ed. by Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter, Schaeder, B .: Germanistic Lexicography. Max Niemeyer Verlag, Tübingen 1987 Vermeer, H. J .: Wőrterbűcher as an aid for different types of translation. In: An international handbook on lexicography, first part, ed. by Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter, Werner, R .: The markings in the bilingual dictionary. In: An international handbook on lexicography, third volume, ed. by Franz Josef Hausmann, Oskar Reichmann, Herbert Ernst Wiegand, Ladislav Zgusta. Berlin / New York: de Gruyter,
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