Is emotional health similar to intellectual health
OfStephen Brian Sulkes
, MD, Golisano Children's Hospital at Strong, University of Rochester School of Medicine and Dentistry
Intellectual disability can be genetic or the result of a disorder that affects the development of the brain.
Most intellectually disabled children do not develop clearly recognizable symptoms until they reach preschool.
The diagnosis is based on the results of a formal test.
Adequate prenatal care reduces the risk of having an intellectually disabled child.
With the help of specialists, therapy and special lessons, intellectually disabled children can achieve the highest possible level of function.
The expression used earlier mental disability is increasingly attached to a social stigma, which is why medical professionals are now from intellectual disability speak.
Intellectual disability (ID) is not a specific medical disorder like pneumonia or strep throat, nor is it a mental health disorder. An intellectually disabled person is only able to cope with everyday tasks to a limited extent in one or more areas due to their below-average intellectual performance (adaptive abilities), so that they need ongoing support. Adaptive skills can be broken down into several areas, including
Conceptual area: memory performance as well as reading, writing and arithmetic skills
Social area: Awareness of the thoughts and feelings of others, interpersonal skills and social judgment
Practical area: personal care, organization of tasks (for school or work), dealing with money, health and safety
Intellectually disabled people are damaged to varying degrees, from slightly to severely disabled. While the disability itself is caused by decreased mental performance (typically measured by standardized intelligence tests), the degree of disability depends primarily on the amount of support the person needs. For example, a person who is found to have only slight disabilities on the intelligence test may have such poor adaptive skills that extensive support is required.
The degree of support is divided into
Intermittent: Occasional support required
Limited: support e.g. B. in the form of a day program in a workshop for the disabled
Comprehensive: Daily, ongoing support
In-depth High level of care in all day-to-day activities, possibly even full-time care
Based on the results of IQ tests alone, around 3 percent of the population have an intellectual disability (IQ less than 70). However, based on the number of people in need of assistance, only about 1 percent of the population has a severe intellectual disability.
Degree of intellectual disability
Skills in preschool age (birth to 6 years)
Adaptive skills at school age (6 to 20 years old)
Required assistance in adulthood (21 years and older)
Often shows delays in speech and language development
Often diagnosed late
Can acquire social and communication skills
Certain reading, writing and arithmetic difficulties, but can reach the level of a primary school certificate in adolescence
Challenges with planning and managing money
Socially immature but can learn adequate social skills
Certain limitations in judgment and risk assessment - more easily manipulated by others
Needs guidance and support in complex tasks (such as health and legal decisions) and in times of strong social or economic pressure
Can usually develop sufficient social and professional skills to lead an independent life
Low social awareness
May benefit from self-employment training
Can learn to speak or communicate
Can achieve elementary school level with support for schoolwork
Learn to move around familiar places by yourself
Social judgment and understanding are limited, but the person affected can learn certain social and professional skills
Can build successful friendships and romantic relationships
Takes care of simple personal needs and household chores following extensive instructions
Needs supervision and support when dealing with money, planning and all slightly more complex everyday tasks
Can lead an independent life as an unskilled or semi-skilled worker in a supportive environment
Can cope with his basic needs himself to a certain extent
Has only limited language skills
Can speak a few words
Can speak or learn to discuss simple, everyday events and can learn simple health behaviors
Little understanding of written language, numbers, time, or money
Benefits from behavior training
Usually successful relationships with family members and known confidants
Sometimes inappropriate behavior (including self-harm)
Can develop some useful self-protection techniques in a sheltered environment
Needs support with all everyday tasks, but can sometimes take care of himself under constant supervision
Must be cared for due to limited self-sufficiency
Extreme cognitive limitation
Often sensory and / or physical disabilities
Limited understanding of language or gestures, mainly communicates non-verbally
Enjoy the company of familiar family members and caregivers, but the sensory and physical disabilities often limit social activities
Often in need of maintenance
Self-sufficiency is only possible to a very limited extent
A number of medical and environmental factors can cause intellectual disability. Some diseases are genetic. already present before or at the time of conception. Other factors occur during pregnancy or during or after childbirth. What all factors have in common is that they impair the growth and development of the brain. Even with the latest advances in genetics, particularly in chromosome analysis techniques, a specific cause of intellectual disability can often not be identified.
Some causes that before or during conception can occur are:
Some causes that during pregnancy can occur are:
Some causes that during birth can occur are:
Some causes that after birth can occur are:
Some children with intellectual disabilities can show physical or neurological abnormalities at birth or shortly afterwards. These include facial deformities, a particularly large or small head, deformities of the hands or feet and numerous other peculiarities. In other children, intellectual disability manifests itself as signs of serious illness, including seizures, lethargy, vomiting, abnormally smelling urine, and failure to thrive and develop. Many toddlers with severe intellectual disabilities have a delay in developing their motor skills in the first year of life and do not begin to roll over, sit or stand until late.
Most children with intellectual disabilities, however, do not develop clearly identifiable symptoms until they reach preschool. The more severe the disability, the earlier the symptoms become apparent. The first thing most parents notice is slow language development. Intellectually disabled children take longer to use words, combine words, and speak in full sentences. Their social development is also sometimes delayed due to their cognitive and linguistic deficits. They often learn late to dress alone and to eat independently. Parents usually think of a cognitive disorder for the first time when their child goes to kindergarten or school and does not meet age-related expectations.
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